Saturday, February 18, 2017

DACHAU-KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 15

                                                                                                


                                               DACHAU-KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 15

                                                                        Alphabetical Order

                                                                                         M



MUNICH - LORD MAYOR (OBERBÜRGERMEISTER)

The International Search Service reported that for the period from 1 January to 14 April 1945 a sub-camp at the Munich Lord Mayor Karl Fehler premises, existed. Two to nine prisoners had been stationed there. Details about this sub-camp or other details, are not not known.
An investigation  procedure of the Central Office of the JusticeAadministration in the years 1973 and 1974 was discontinued, since no witnesses could be found.


MUNICH -THE PARTY CHANCELLERY
 

The construction of the NSDAP party's chancellery in  the  Gabelsbergerstrasse in Munich began in 1938. The basement had extensive bunker facilities and was completed before the start of the war. The rest of the building remained incomplete until 1945. The offices of the 'Deputy of the 'Führer' Rudolf Hess were accommodated in the 'Braunen Haus' at Briennerstrasse 45 in the Munich party building complex. After Rudolf Hess's flight to England in May 1941, his successor, Martin Bormann, headed the unnamed party management, and moved his Munich office to the "Führerbau" in the Arcisstrasse 12. His employees were distributed in various buildings in the Brennerstrasse, Arcisstrasse and Max-Josefstrasse.



                                            https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-17059%2C_M%C3%BCnchen%2C_Braunes_Haus.jpg
                                                                    Braunes Haus 1935

 
As early as 1942, Erich M., a prominent prisoner, did serve as a deputy Kapo with twelve to fourteen prisoners for about six months to clean up the Party Chancery in Munich. The prisoners removed bombshells after an air attack. They found wine and liquor in the rubbish and drank the alcohol. After this incident the working commando was dissolved in the summer of 1942. Where these prisoners were lodged remains unclear.    In the spring of 1944, a new commando with 30 to 40 prisoners was taken from Dachau initially by trucks, and later by train,  to the Party Quarters (Parteiviertel) in Munich. The commando consisted of Germans, French, Russians, and Poles.


                                                   
                                                        Braunes Haus 1945 - Ruins


About a sub-camp at the  NSDAP-Munich-Party-Chancellry can be spoken of, from September 1944, when the prisoners were accommodated in the rear building of the bombed-out hotel Contienental in the Max-Josefstrasse. The guard team was also quartered in this hotel. In the hotel kitchen the food for the prisoners was prepared. In the middle of December 1944, the hotel Continental was badly damaged again  after an air raid and the sub-camp moved into the basement of the property at the Max-Losef-Strasse. Here the offices of the '[Division III - Legal State-Rights-Questions' of the Party Chancellery were housed.
In the mornings various members of the NS-Party gave orders to the working commando for the day. On the section of the Party Administration in the vicinity of the Karolinenplatz, the prisoners were mainly used for clean-up work after bomb attacks and the construction of air-raid shelters, but also for the repair work on private properties of Party members (Partei-Mitglieder). The sub-camp was guarded by ten SS members and the commanding officer SS-Scharführer Uwer.

Former prisoners reported that the conditions were good. They were not mistreated. And no one was killed. This is confirmed by a letter from SS-Hauptscharführer Hans Moser of April 5, 1945, in which he complained about the lax conditions and, above all, about the lack of mandatory duties (Verpflichtung) of the commanding officer, Uwer. Moser had repeatedly been able to establish that the prisoners were working too little, that there was no way in guarding of their accommodation as these were inaccessible, and that the prisoners had library books and road maps which they had found in bombed-out houses.
In his memoirs, former prisoner Hans Schwarz described the fact that the prisoners organized known shortages and exchanged these for information and  messages. In this way, valuable substances (Stoffe) or wines from the KZ-Dachau supply stores were sent to employees at the Party Chancery, who were paid with these goods in return of internal party reports, snd incoming instructions or orders.
On April 4, 1945, the sub-camp was reduced by eleven prisoners. In the Maax-Josef-Strasse, 15 prisoners with seven guards and the commandant remained. In the following weeks, the commando must have been strengthened once more, because when it was dissolved on April 22, 1945, it consisted of 25 prisoners. These were taken by foot from Munich to kZ-Dachau.
On the site of the former party chancery in the Gabelsbergerstrasse, new buildings of the Technical University were built between 1965 and 1970.


MUNICH - REICHSBAHN (GERMAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS

)The International Search Service provides the period from January 1945 to April 1945 for the existence of the sub-camp Munich-Reichsbahn. However, an accident report of 22 December 1944 suggests that this sub-camp existed already at the end of 1944, as at the day before two prisoners kept in Protective Custody (Schutzhaft) at the Munich railway station between Donnersberger-Hakenbrücke, had been injured. They had warmed up with a railway policeman on a fire near their workplace, when they were injured by an explosive device. They were French prisoners and  were taken by ambulance brought back to the hospital of Stammlager Dachau.

                                                    Deutsche Reichsbahn Gesellschaft


                                                    Emblem of the Deutsche Reichsbahn-

                                            
The commando, which consisted of up to 500 prisoners according to a post-war survey, carried out clearing work for the Reichsbahn. In it's listings are also two Kapos mentioned: Reinfrank and Quad. Only one name is known by the SS staff. Wilhelm Onmacht, a Feldwebel (Sergeant)  of the Wehrmacht, was used as a security guard between 5 March and 25 April 1945. Unfortunately   no sources are available that could clarify one-offs.

Post Script:
The logistics of the Reichsbahn were also an important factor during the Holocaust. Jews were transported like cattle to the concentration and extermination camps by the Deutsche Reichsbahn in trains of covered goods wagons, so-called Holocaust trains. These movements using cattle wagons, for example, from the goods station of the great Frankfurt Market Hall thus played a significant role in the genocide within the extermination machinery of the Holocaust. In 1997, the market erected a memorial plaque in recognition of this dark period of history. Source: Wikipedia.

 MUNICH - REICHSFÜHRER-SS

The departments of the Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler and his coworkers in Munich were located since 1935 in the Partyiertel (NSDAP Quarter) in  the Karlstrasse 10 ind were extended to Karlstrasse 8. According to the International Search Service, there was a sub-camp Reichsführer SS for the construction management of the Waffen-SS and the police between 8 November 1943 and 14 April 1945. A strength report to the KZ-Dachau of 23 October 1942, bears witness that seven Prisoners before that date under the designation 'Commando Reichsführer SS Munich' were used. It is still unclear whether these prisoners are already attributable to the sub-camp Reichsfuhrer SS, or whether it is a time-limited commando, which was deployed before the sub-camp was established. Among these prisoners were two German and three Polish prisoners of the group from the police security department. Kapo was the German Alfred Mienik.

Strength reports of April 1945 indicated 13 pr rather 14 prisoners for the external camp. A Serbian prisoner was returned to KZ-Dachau on 6 April 1945 due to illness and a Polish prisoner was requested in exchange on 9 April 1945 from the main camp. Neither for the commando in 1942 for the sub-camp are details as to accommodation, work assignment and SS guard teams known. From 1973 to 1975, the central office of the administration of the judiciary could not ascertain the events at the camp of the Reichsführer SS.
Today, an insurance company is located at Karlstrasse 8 and 10 in a post-war building.

MUNICH - REICHSFÜHRER SS-ADJUTANT

After an air attack on Munich on 7 January 1945 the Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler personally ordered the special use of 50 prisoners from the KZ-Dachau for the removal of the damage on the Führer building and administration complex of the NSDAP in the Arcisstrasse. An adjutant of Himmler, SS Hauptscharführer Schitzler, transmitted these orders to the SS barracks at Freimann (in Munich). As to security procedures, a strengthened protective command for the prisoner's use in the Reichs-Administration of the NSDAP should be established and put into place. The guardsmen were to report on 9 January 1945 at ten o'clock in the administration building of the NSDAP in the  Arcisstrasse. Information on the size of this protective command is not known.

At first the prisoners were only meant to be used for one or two days. On January 11, 1945, Dr. Kasper Ruoff thanked the Reichsführer-SS for the use of the prisoners. In a letter on behalf of the Adjutant, he mentioned that without the prisoners the provisional re-construction of the destroyed departments would not have been possible. At the same time, Ruoff asked that the detainees be allowed to work for a further 14 days, not only on clean-up work but for the repair of damaged buildings. On the same day, the extension of the prisoners' resolution until 25 January 1945 was confirmed. That the Prisoner commander was also in the Reich's-Administration was there  over January, is evident in a file note of the principal Owander of 27 March 1945. He points out that against the background of the landing of enemy paratroops in the vicinity of Munich, the KZ-prisoners should be removed from the Reich's-Administration grounds  for security reasons and should be taken back into the KZ-Dachau. Yet in this memo, it was handwritten in the margin that the Reichsschatzmeister (Treasurer) still needed the prisoners. Last mentioned was the sub-camp 'Reichsführer-SS Adjutant', according to the International Search Service on 14 April 1945.
Insights to the prisoners, their accommodation and living conditions as well as that of the SS- Wachmannschaft (Guards) are not available.

MUNICH - REICHSFÜHRER-SS MAIN PAYMASTER

The ardent prisoner, Anton S., recalls that on January 31, 1945, he was sent to Munich with nine other prisoners to work on the bombarded Administration Building of the 'Reichsführer SS-Hauptkasse' (Central Paymaster). From Monday's to Saturday's, the prisoners were taken by train from Dacha station to Munich and returned to the KZ-Dachau in the evening. The commando was guarded by  two to three Czech SS members.
In 1973 the International Search Service was able to identify four former prisoners of this commando by name. They came from the German Reich, Poland, Italy and Yugoslavia. On February 7, 1945, the commando was assigned a German Schutzhäftling (Custody Prisoner) who was by profession an Erdarbeiter (Earth Foundation Worker).
Further details on the exact use, the food, the activities, which the prisoners had to carry out, as well as the SS-Guard duties are not known. The commando was closed on 3 March 1945 according to a KZ-file.

MUNICH - REICHSKRIMINALPOLIZEIAMT (Reich-Criminal-Police-Department)

The Reichskriminalpolizeipolizeiamt (RKPA) emerged from the Prussian Landespolizeiamt in 1937 and was integrated into the department 'V' after the founding of the Reichsicherheitshauptamt 1939. A total of 19 criminal police departments were set up, which, under the direction of the RKPA, coordinated the work of several Kripostellen. The sub-camp, called 'Reichskriminalpolizeiamt', is the Criminal Police Office, Munich, which is under the responsibility of the RKPA, at the end of Ettstrasse 2. Between January 1945 and 14 April 1945, a commando of twelve prisoners was deployed there. Apart from these temporal data provided by the International Search Service, no further details on this sub-camp are known. It must remain open whether it was a camp, or if the prisoners were brought daily from Dachau to be employed there.
The District Court was unable to find any former prisoners to be questioned about a
place with temporary accommodation of huts, tents, or other structures.
At the Ettstrasse 2 is now the Munich police department

MUNICH - SPRENGKOMMANDO

In the German Reich, KZ-prisoners have been used since 1940 to defuse Blindgänger (dud bombs)  with long-term detonator devices . The prisoners worked in small groups up to six men at changing locations. They were called bomb search or explosive commandos, so today a precise distinction of these individual commandos is difficult. In a letter for the bomb search commander Munich, which was housed in the Stielerschule, the description Bomb-Search-Commando or  Dud-Bomb-Removal-Commando appears.






                                                  
Disposal of a 4,000 pound blockbuster bomb dropped by the RAF during World War II. Found in the Rhine near Koblenz, 4 December 2011. A linear shaped charge has been placed on top of the casing
The disarmed bomb, positioned on the platform of a truck in Cologne, Germany. German authorities evacuated some 20,000 people from the vicinity while dealing with the old explosive device, which weighed in at 2,200 pounds. Credit Rolf  Vennenbernd/DPA, via Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

The international search service does mentioned on 12 July 1944 about a sub camp 'Munich explosive commando'. This was in regard to an inmate of the so called 'Sprengkommando 12.7.194'. The prisoner of the 'explosive commando 12.7.1944' is known by name. The index file indicates,that  the Viennese Friedrich Zeilinger had died on 8 July 1944 while in this commando. Whether it was an independent command, which was only deployed in Munich on 12 July 1944, or whether it was a smaller commando within a larger group of prisoners who had been deployed for the purpose of the unexploited demolition in Munich remains open to question .In November 1944, there were at least eleven bomb disposal commandos in Munich, which were deployed in groups of six. Again it is unclear whether they belonged to the bomb search command at the  Stielerschule or formed an independent commando remains unanswered.

MUNICH - SS TEAM HOUSES

In the summer of 1935, these so-called SS-team houses were established as a kind of "Studienstiftung-SS'' (Study Foundation SS). At first, suitable houses were acquired near universities and administered by the Race and Settlement Headquarters. Here lived an average of 30 students , who had previously passed through a vigorous and strict evaluation procedure. They had to become SS members,participate in SS military service, and take part in the political world-view education (politische Weltanschauung). Finally, they should be used as an academic SS elite. One of the first 'SS-Team 1935 -Housing' was built in Munich.
On 1 April 1942, the management of the team-house was transferred to the SS-Administration at Maria-Theresienstrasse. On November 5, 1942, seven prisoners from the KZ-Dachau were taken there, who are known by name. Thus a sub-camp consisting of six people, plus a cook was established, who had come for renovation work in the SS men's building. The prisoners came from the German Reich, Poland and Luxenburg, one of them belonged to the faith community of Jehovah's Witnesses. They were all housed in at the Maria-Theresienstrasse
.Commandant of this sub-camp was an SS-Oberscharführer who's name as well as those of the guards is unknown.

During the existence of a two-week period of this sub-camp, two prisoners were brought back to the Stammlager Dachau and replaced by other prisoners. The sub-camp which was also called Painter-Commando, and was dissolved on November 8, 1942, with the return of the seven prisoners.
Today, the property is home to an investment consulting firm.


MUNICH - SS-LOCAL COMMAND-BUNKER CONSTRUCTION
 

In a non-localizable SS barracks in Munich were since July or August 1944 ten KZ- prisoners deployed in the construction of an air-raid shelter. In 1973 the International Search Service was able to find three prisoners of this sub-camp. One of them remembers that the prisoners were housed in a room in the fourth level of the barracks. The windows of the room were barred, and the prisoners were guarded by SS-guards from the Dachau. The commander beat one prisoner from Warsaw with a piece of board brutally on his head, that the injured inmate fell to the floor, where the commandant continued to kicked him him until the man died. The corpse of the prisoner was later placed in the barracks yard foe all to view. The unknown commandant once mistreated a prisoner so hard that he had to be transferred to the KZ-hospital in Dachau. He returned to the sub-camp after a good recovery.
In April 1945 the commando of the SS barracks was evacuated, and the prisoners were taken back to Dachau on foot.After preliminary investigations by the the state justice administration Munich II in 1976 a procedure against the unknown commandant murder was instigated.
After preliminary investigation
details of this sub-camp  as well as of the suspects could not be determined, after which the proceedings were terminated.


MUNICH - THE MEAT-WORKS (GROSSCHLACHTEREI) RUDOLF THOME

The Meat Works of Rudilf Thomae in Munich could not be located for this writing. During 1942 the company engaged prisoners from the KZ-Dachau. The International Search Service first mentions of an individual prisoner on 21 August 1942. But since two Kapo's of this sub-camp are known, and since a  single prisoner was never overseen by one Kapo alone, the camp consisted of more than one prisoner. On 1 November 1942, Wilhelm Binner was replaced by Erwin Hansselmann as Kapo of the sub-camp. The composition of  this working commando was that, according to the documents at hand,  exclusively about skilled workers, who were either engineers and carpenters. Other details could  not to be clarified
The last indication of this camp, is a strength report for the KZ-Dachau of March 12, 1942.
The Central District Court proceeded without results about the existence of a sub-camp Meat Works  Thomae.


Auther German Text: Sabine Schalm 

 


Sources/Acknowledgements:                                                   
Wikipedia
Der Ort des Terrors, Pages 414-
Vol 2 C.H.Beck, München 2005

Translated from German by:
 Stolpmann,Herbert Karl Walter
 von Waldeck
Design:d-stolpmann@gmail.com                                                          Continued under Part 16






Thursday, February 2, 2017

Dachau KZ - Satelliite Camps Part 14 Alphabetical Order M

                                         




                                 DACHAU KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 14

                                                   Alphabetical Order

                                                                                                      M



MUNICH - LODEN - FREY

The textile factory Lodenfrey had been in Osterholzstrasse 9-10 since 1842.
In 1928 Georg Frey joined the management in the field of manufacturing. He had been a party member and of the  SS since 1933: (Civil SS), but in 1937 he left the SS for religious reasons. In 1933, the company produced uniforms for some units of the 'Stahlhelm', and in the years to come delivered coats for the SA, Hitlerjugend, and Reichsarbeitsdienst. Between 1933 and 1940, the family business was able to increase the number of employees and profits, so that in 1934 and after 1942 the factory building was extended. Since the second year of the war economic downturns have been marked for the firm, especially in 1944/45 by two total destruction of the sales outlets in the Maffeistrasse 7 and Kaufingerstrasse 23

                                           
                                                     Pre-war Sales Outlet of LodenFrey
                                                                          Source:
                                                http://www.lodenfrey.eu/history.html

The first data on the existence of a detainee commando at the textile factory dated August 1942. This was a labor  commando, which was brought daily from the KZ-Dachau to Munich. How many prisoners were in this working detail, and what work they had to perform, is not clear. In May 1944, an additional commando of 30 detainees came to Loden-Frey to clean up the premises after a bombing raid. These prisoners were driven by truck, with six SS guards to Munich and returned in the evening to the KZ-Dachau. It was not until June 13, 1944, that a sub-camp at the company, at the Osterwaldstrasse, was established. The prisoners came from Poland, Russia, Yugoslavia, but also from France and Italy. Wilhelm Reissmann was the only German who acted as Kapo.

The 30 prisoners were accommodated in a garage on the factory premises,  where they had beds and bed linen provided for them. The hygienic conditions were good, as there was a shower which could be used daily, on top of that the prisoners were allowed to bathe at the weekend in the swimming pool of the company. There was no fencing in or around their accommodation. They also received their meals from the company kitchen but they sat aside from the civilian employees. In 1944/45 the garage was damaged during another air raid and the prisoners were temporarily quartered in the basement of the factory. There was a radio available to them, with which the prisoners could hear foreign broadcasts. In 1944, the manager of the factory organized for the prisoners a small celebration with festivities in which everyone was given a shirt, fruit and cigarettes. The former prisoner Philipp Busch recalled that Georg Frey often procured additional food and cigarettes for the detainees. The prisoners were given so much bread that they could give some of it to the French POW in the factory.

Six SS guards, among them were at least three Volksdeutsche (Ethnic Germans), were accommodated in the same garage as the prisoners, separated only by a wall from them. They supervised the prisoners at their work assignment, not necessarily their performance, which was done by civilians.
There were no reports of killings or ill-treatment from the sub-camp. About one week before the arrival of the American troops in Munich, the sub-camp was ordered to be dissolved and the prisoners transferred back to the Stammlager Dachau. According to reports of survivors, Georg Frey refused to provide  a company truck to take them there. Instead, he fitted out all prisoners with civilian clothes, helped nine detainees to escape, and hid the rest in his house  or in the homes of company employees. After the SS guard team had left, 19 prisoners experienced their liberation in the factory of Loden-Frey.

Georg Frey resigned from the management in August 1945. In a de-nazifiction trial, he was classified as a 'Nitläufer' (fellow- party runner) in 1948 he had to pay an 'atonement'  sum of DM 2,000 and the costs of thecourt  proceedings of DM 75,000. [The system was introduced only in the American Zone, the OMGB (Office of the Military Government of Bavaria) if a person who had  been a member of the NSDAP, (the Nazi Party), (Sünde-Geld ''atonement-money'  was applied, this by no means changed the political opinion of the individual concerned. Those that were categorized as former Naziis [by that, according to the Occupatio Forces had committed a 'Sin' thus Sühne-Geld and could not pay were detained in concentration type camps with a maximum of four years. This whole scheme was stopped with the cold war heating up 1951 in Korea  sic]
Loden-Frey is still a respected Munich textile company. The former factory site in the Osterwaldstrasse is now a commercial area, which is rented out and managed by Loden-Freypark GmbH. On the place, where the prisoners were accommodated in the Garage, there is now a Car-Park Building. Behind it is still the swimming-poolstill  mentioned in prisoners' reports. In 2003 a statement was commissionedand published by the company  on their role during the time of the National Socialism.
There is no memorial tablet on the site. [Georg Frey died on the 28. August 1976, sic]


Author German Text: Sabine Schalm



MUNICH - SHOE HOUSE MEIER

The shoe house Eduard Meier in Munich, today Residenzstrasse 22, promotes, formerly promoted as a Royal Bavarian Courtier and now the oldest shoe house in Germany. According to the International Search Service, between November 1944 and February 1945 the sub-camp Schuhhaus Meier used up to twelve prisoners. KZ-files, which could give further information about this work commando, are not available.

As far back in the 1930s as well as in the 1940s, a sales outlet and repair shop, maintained by craftsmen
were located in the middle of the NS Party district at Karlstrasse 3-5. During  an air attack on the 17th December 1944 the premises were completely destroyed, so that their own production had to be stopped. At this time, the shoe repair facilities were supposed to have been sent to the KZ-Dachau and taken over by inmates. Civilian employees at the Schuhhaus Meier were regularly taken by truck to Dachau to deliver the shoes needing repair and pick up the finished footwear. In addition, a shoe polisher/grinder was delivered from the Munich shop  to Dachau.

Investigations by the Central Office of the State Justice Administration in 1973 were unable to contact any survivors of this sub-camp. The proceedings were terminated in 1974 without results. Today's company management is not aware that prisoners ever worked in their factory in th Karlstrasse, After the destruction the building the family Meier did not rebuild on the estate in the Karlstrasse, but sold the the building it had stood, after the war to the Oberfinanzdirektion Munich. Today, a new building is used mainly for commercial purposes.

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm



MUNICH - MÖHLSTRASSE

Since 1936, the administrative offices of the SS-Oberabschnitt Süd( Upper Section South) were located at Maria-Theresia-Strasse 17, a parallel street to Möhlstrasse. Prisoners of the KZ-Dachau were assigned to the Upper Section South, but the sub-camp was in the Möhlstrasse. For this reason, various proscriptions appeared in the list of transitions and changes made by Dachau concerning the sub-camp: Möhlstrasse and SS Obedrabschnitt Süd. Both are however one and the same sub-camp.

The first mention of this sub-camp is a report on the death of two prisoners by an air attack on 9 June 1944. It is clear from this. that a commando of Dachau prisoners had already been deployed before this day. An accurate dating is not possible. There is also little concrete information on the number indicated in their actual listed strength. The international search service show ten prisoners, a report of the KZ-Dachau of 3 April 1945 lists eight prisoners and a list from the clothing supply room of Dachau indicates only four prisoners for the sub-camp SS-Upper Section South.
The prisoners, as far as they are known from the lists of transcripts, came from the German Reich and other countries. According to the International Search Service, the prisoners were engaged in building repairs. The construction of an air-raid shelter is mentioned elsewhere.

The sub-camp was last mentioned in the form of the return of two Yugoslavian prisoners held in "custody" back to the Stammlager Dachau on 25 April 1945.

In 1973/74, the Central Office of the District Justice Department (Landesjustizverwaltun)g conducted an investigation into this sub-camp. The procedure was discontinued due to lack of new evidence.
In the buildings at Maria-Theresienstrasse 17, offices of the Bavarian ministries of education for cultus and science, as well as for science, research and art, are now available and taught there.

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm


 

MUNICH - NURSERY ENTERPRISE  - NÜTZL

Since 1928, Franz Nützl has been managing the Nursery and running a wholesale trade in vegetables and fruit at Ludwigsfeld 9 in Munich. As an SA member, he was involved in 1933 until 1938 at Beer-Hall battles in Munich and at the fire of the Munich synagogue. In 1937, he joined the NSDAP and fostered his close contacts with the SS and SD figures in High Command. He was also active for the SD and wrote monthly reports.

Until 1933, the nursery company was on the verge of bankruptcy. With the takeover of power by the  National Socialists, Franz Nützl was able to open up new business partners and became one of the most influential wholesale traders in Munich. Until the end of the war, he was the only fruit and vegetable supplier for Munich and the surrounding SS garrisons, their hospitals, police schools as well as recreational centers of the police, the SS and the SD. He provided the requirements of the canteens in the Contraction Camp Dachau, KZ-Mauthausen, Auschwitz, Flossenbürg, Sachsenhausen, Buchenwwald and Ravensbrück.
Unbelievable the KZ-Dachau supplied Franz not only with goods, but he also profited from their workshops. For example, he had his own shoe-making work for himself and his family done there, and he also received materials for the expansion of his company from Dachau.

In 1940, Franz Nützl benefited from his close ties with the Party(Nazi-Party) and the SS decision-makers by assigning prisoners of war as aid workers for his gardening operation. The first KZ-prisoners worked for him in 1941 at Ludwigsfeld. SS Unterscharführer Bruno Jakusch came in September 1942 as commanding officer with about 24 prisoners and four to five guards to Nützl's company. After an air attack on September 22, 1944, large parts of the nursery were destroyed. Useful and convenient, Franz Nützl also worked as an expert on war damages, was compensated in a very short time and was given an additional 70 prisoners for clearing work on his company premises.

According to a former prisoner, who worked in the writing room (Schreibstubed) of the KZ-Dachau, this Commando was very unpopular until 1943. No one wanted to be assigned to this command. The work there  was exhausting, and commandant Jakusch and Kapo Rohmer were generally known as brutal individuals. Franz Nützl and his wife did not only allow the mistreatment to happen, but also encouraged the guard teams to drive the detainees to higher performances. If an inmate did not work quickly and well enough, Franz Nützl reported back to Böttcher in Dachau, and then ordered the prisoner to be returned to the Stammlager (Main Camp).

In December, 1944, commandant Jakusch was removed from the gardening enterprise Nützl after an epileptic attack. Successor became an SS-member named Uelzhofer. He was also reported to have been beating prisoners he had caught while stealing. According to Uelzhofer, there was at least one other commanding officer, but no details are known.

The prisoners from the Dachau concentration camp brought their own food with them. However, after heavy work, they were given an  extra allowances by the firm of Franz Nützl.
 How and under what circumstances the prisoners working at the nursery had been lodged is not known.
Until January 1943 they still slept at the KZ-Dachau. A civilian employee remembers that because of a quarantine at the main camp, the work of the prisoners in the nursery was interrupted for two months. Hans Hornung reported that the prisoners were placed into the sub-camp Munich-Allach at the instigation of Franz Nützl after a period of four years. When the detainee commando was actually accommodated  into the sub-camp is  no longer possible to verify.
 

During September 1944 about 92 prisoners from all German occupied countries of Europe were working for Nützl. Kapo at that time was the Viennese inmate Rohner until September 1944. When the rubble clearing team from Dachau came after the destruction to the nursery utility, Rohmer was on vacation. Karl Poltschek took over his post. After his return, Rohner remained in command for only a short time. His successor was Hans Schneider, who oversaw the working commando as Kapo until January 1945.

From January 1943 the German prisoner Hans Hornung worked in the bookkeeping department. Nützl wanted to use him as a business manager, and he therefore tried to get the Administration of the KZ-Dachau for the release of Hornung. The latter was freed on 7 June 1944 with the obligation of duty of service (Dienstverpflichtung) only at the company of Nüztl. With this, Franz Nützl admittedly had freed Hans Hornung from the Concentration Camp, but at the same time forced him into a personal relationship dependency. Several times, Franz Nützl threatened Hans Hornung to return him to the Concentration Camp-. Nevertheless, Hornung tried to improve the situation of the detainees of the working commando Nütgzl, by repeatedly advocating the award of bonuses to the prisoners which was due to them.
[Mrs Hornung was God-Mother to my wife October 1933 and was named after her: 'Anne-Marie.]

Nothing is known of inmate killings from the work detail ''Nützl', during an air attack some prisoners were injured, and seven died in September 1944. The injured people were taken to the Revier at Camp Dachau.

About two days before the invasion of the American troops into Munich, Franz Nützl fled. How long the prisoners stayed on and had worked in the nursery and what happened to them is not known. Only Hans Hornung remained active in the company, and continued the business under American occupation, until Franz Nützl returned out of his hiding place after two weeks.
To hide profits out of his business with the SS, Franz Nützl, after the war  legally transferred a large part of his business over to his wife, and sold his workshops and vehicles to his nephew Franz Auracher. De facto, he remained head of the company.
In 1949, Franz Nützl was assigned to the group of followers by the Supreme Court Munich, and he had to pay a penalty of DM 100 [which was the lowest penalty the Court could impose,sic] and the costs of the proceedings of DM 59,000. An investigation of the Central Office in Ludwigsburg was discontinued in 1974, since there were no indications for a crime in this sub-camp being committed. The former commandant Bruno Jakusch was condemned in 1947 within the framework of the Dachauer processes to two years and six months 
penitentiary.

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm






Sources/Acknowledgements:                                                   
Wikipedia
Der Ort des Terrors, Pages 407-
Vol 2 C.H.Beck, München 2005
Translated from German by:
 Stolpmann,Herbert Karl Walter
 von Waldeck
Design:d-stolpmann@gmail.com                                                          Continued under Part 15





                                    

Wednesday, January 11, 2017

DACHAU KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 13 Alphabetical Order M

                                                                 

                                                          

                     DACHAU KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 13

                                                   Alphabetical Order

                                                                   M

 

 MUNICH - EHRENGUT

The company L.Ehrengut was a sawmill with carpentry, located in Thalkirchenstrasse 270 in Munich. Between 7 April 1942 and 11 September 1942 10 prisoners of the KZ-Dachau were used here. Half of the detachment consisted of German prisoners. Two Czech and three Polish prisoners held as Custody Prisoners were added to the sub-camp Ehrengut.
  
The former prisoner Bodeslaw M. recalls that the commando Ehrengut was initially taken  daily from Dachau by truck to work in Munich and only a few months later, a permanent sub-camp was established on the company premises. This means that as early as April 1942, a detainee work team was busy there. All prisoners were employed as machine-operators in the sawmill in the production of military barracks components.

 The prisoners were housed in a barrack on the factory grounds. The food for the prisoners was delivered from the KZ-Dachau and prepared at Ehrengut. On the Sunday off work, prisoners were able to prepare additional food for themselves. Hermann Glinz, the German Schutzhaftling (Custody Detainee), was the Kapo of the sub-camp.
  
Commander of the sub-camp Ehrengut was SS-UbterscharführerTheodor Stutz-Zenner. The SS security team consisted of five SS members, who came from Romania and Bulgaria. They lived with the prisoners in the same barrack, but in separate rooms, while the commandant was quartered in the Residential house. Ill-treatment and inmate killings are not known.
In the middle of 1942, an inmate fled and the sub-camp Ehrengut was dissolved.
In the framework of the Dachau trial, Theodor Stutz-Zenner was sentenced to life imprisonment for his crimes in various Dachau's sub-camps in 1947.

Author German Text; Sabine Schalm


MUNICH -  GESTAPO
 
At the headquarters of the Secret State Police in Munich, which  housed in the Wittelsbacher Palace at the  Briennerstrasse 50, it was then that in June 1942 the KZ-prisoner Josef Eberl was employed as a caretaker. From 1943 to April, 1945, the work between Eberl and an  additional prisoner Xaver Schroll was divided while living there. Both were kept in prison cells in the basement. Apart from them, other prisoners from Dachau were employed as carpenters, electricians, or painters in the Wittelsbach Palace. There are no further details about these first KZ-prisoners at the Briennerstrasse.
 As a sub-camp proper, 'Munich-Gestapo' for the first time ten Dachau prisoners were taken there, who were transferred to the Briennerstrasse on the 13 June 1944. By April 1945 the sub-camp expanded to 50 prisoners and came from the German Reich, Italy, Yugoslavia, the Netherlands, Poland and Russia. The sub-camp was accommodated within the Wittelsbach Palace in a large hall with multi-storey bunk beds, the hall (Saal) was locked at night. In the cellar there was a kitchen and a bathroom, which were used by the prisoners. The catering was provided by the KZ-Dachau, the preparation had to be taken over by the prisoners themselves. The Gestapo Department was surrounded by a brick wall and fenced in with  barbed wire, controlled day and night by guards.
                                           
                                             Munich Residenz, Königsbau (2014) The former Royal Palace was bombed beyond use and rebuilt    as it is now

 The commando was headed by Kapo Karl Frey, who would strive vigorously for the well-being of his fellow prisoners. The detainees carried out mainly repairs and erected an air raid shelter in the Wittelsbach domain. In part, they were used outside to remove bombs, to extinguish fires, or remove the dead out of the rubble after air raids. A former truck driver  employed by the Gestapo remembers that he picked up prisoners in the courtyard of the Wittelsbach Palace in the mornings, took them to their place of work, and delivered them back again to the Briennerstrasse in the evening. In 1945 smaller groups of prisoners were used for bomb disposals. Several Polish and Russian prisoners were killed in January 1945 during the detonation of a duds, that in fact were fitted with time delays. From this sub-camp further detainees were killed during bomb clearings, but  their losses were replaced   with other prisoners from Dachau.

On 7 January 1945 seven prisoners were hanged in the park of the Wittelsbach Palace because of looting. An inmate had to act as a hangman and the remaining prisoners had to watch the hanging. Further executions and shooting of prisoners on the grounds of food theft or unauthorized absence from the workplace are known; misstatements by the SS security teams were the order of the day. [The looting properly took place after an air raid, warning signs were erected, that the Police would shoot at anyone found at bombed-out premises. this was nothing newsic]
 

The sub-camp Munich-Gestapo was under the command of Adolf Höfer. The guard detachment were composed of foreign SS members, who guarded the prisoners inside and outside the Wittelsbach Palace. Their treatment of detainees was brutal.

 On 25 April 1945 the sub-camp Munich-Gestapo was dissolved, the prisoners were returned to KZ-Dachau on foot. At the Landgericht (District Court) Munich, there were two proceedings dealing with the operations at the sub-camp. During  1963/64 it was claimed that the former prisoners Josef Eberl and Xaver Schroll abused one  of a Gestapo prisoners. The case was closed as no evidence could be provided. In the same way, in the 1976 proceedings against Adolf Höfer, (the former commandant) and other former members of the Gestapo were discontinued for lack of evidence for alleged killings.

Today there is a new building at Briennerstrasse 50, which houses the Volkstheater in addition to the Law Chancery of the, and is not identical with the location of the Wittelsbach Palace. The former address Briennerstrasse 50 is today's house number 20. The Wittelsbach Palace was abgerissen  (torn down) in 1964, where the Landesbank (State Bank) erected a new complex,  on its facade on which a memorial plague is placed, points to the former Gestapo's service building.

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm 


MUNICH - HÖCLSTRASSE

In the Höchlstrasse in the center of Munich, from October to December 1944, a prisoner commando was placed in a private villa. In the files this sub-camp was run under SS-Standort-Verwaltung (Local Administration)) Höchlstrasse. According to a former prisoner Conrad Klug, it consisted of 18 craftsmen, who had to do clean ups after air attacks on Munich.
 The commando consisted of political prisoners of different nationalities and members of the faith community of Jejovas' Witnesses. Details on the accommodation, meals and treatment of the prisoners, as well as details of SS staff, are not known. 

Lists of transfers from KZ-Dachau for the months of October and November 1944, indicates that 20 prisoners were gradually assigned to the sub-camp Höchlstrasse, wile from the  main camp, only five prisoners returned during the existence of this camp. It remains unclear whether sub-camp survivors have died and whether they have been  substituted from the main camp or just increased the strength of the commando. Conrad Klug reported that the working detail was dissolved in December 1944, and that part of the prisoners were transferred to the sub-camp Garmisch. According to the International Search Service in Arolsen, the sub-camp Höchlstrasse was last mentioned on 28 December 1944.
In 1973, the Central Office of the District Court Administration in Ludwigsburg initiated investigations into the activities at the  Höchlstrasse camp. Since no violent crimes or killings could be proved, the procedure was terminated in 1974.


Author German Text: Sabine Schalm


  MUNICH - KATASTROPENEINSATZ

 Between the 5th February 1945 and 21st April 1945 consisted the sub-camp 'catastrophic deployment' in Munich. It is not possible to establish the exact locality  of this sub-camp. however, up to 85 prisoners were placed in a cellar of a bombed-out house and used to defuse dud bombs after air raids on the city area. The so called camp consisted of prisoners of different nationalities, mainly Russians, Poles and Czechoslovaks. To keep control and order were the German Custody Prisoners (Schtzhäftlinge) Werner Ascher and Otto Höringer as Kapo and assistant kapo. The prisoners slept in multiple tiered  beds and were guarded by ten SS members and a commanding officer. The work orders for the commando would be conveyed to the commandant personally by Karl Fiehle, the Bürgermeiter (mayor) of Munich at that timer.
 
The high mortality rate of the detainees is known from other operating teams, defusing duds in Munich, because they were sent to their mission without specialist training and adequate safety precautions,
On April 20, 1945, 28 prisoners and one day later further eleven prisoners from the sub-camp were brought back to the KZ-Dachau and the camp was dissolved
In 1973, the Central Office of the District Court in Ludwigsburg initiated a procedural inquiry, which was discontinued in 1976 in the absence of any clear indications.


Author German Text: Sabine Schalm


MUNICH - LEBENSBORN

 In the spring of 1942 the SS 'Lebensborn' consortium acquired from the Reichsvereinigung (State Incorporation) of Jewish property in Germany the former Jewish Old Peoples Residence at Mathildenstrasse 8-9 in Munich. Here, services of the 'Lebensborn'-Administration were established. On June 15, 1942, there was a sub-camp of the KZ-Dachau domiciled, which consisted of 20 prisoners, mostly Polish, Austrians, Czechs and Germans. In September 1942, the commando increased to 40 prisoners. They were housed in a dwelling with the window panes painted over. An SS detachment guarded the building.

]First, the prisoners rebuilt the bomb-damaged building of Mathildenstrasse. Some of the prisoners also worked at different places in the city on other construction sites. Thus a survivor reported that he had been deployed with a small commando in the Hermann-Schmid-Strasse during repair work. In the number 5 estate there was a former Jewish hospital, which Lebensborn had also acquired in 1942 and rebuilt into office departments.. But the prisoners were also used for reconstruction and bunker building work for the private apartment of the Munich Lebensborn, SS leader Max Stollmann. From Monday to Saturday they worked from six o'clock in the morning to seven o'clock in the evening, on Sundays until noon.

 The SS staff consisted of a commanding officer and five SS guards. The first commander was an SS man named Bederlein, his successor was Noll. The last commanding officer, SS Unterscharführer, was the most brutal in relation with the prisoners, who was apparently ordered to go to Munich no later than the autumn of 1943. The head of the Lebensborn, Max Schollmann, gave instructions on the work-assignments to the Commando-Führer and was in return informed about all events in the sub-camp. Contacts between prisoners and employees of the Lebensborn were strictly forbidden. Hans Rohr, the custodian prisoner, was a Kapo. He was described as brutal and cruel by survivors. Piotr K., a former prisoner, reported that Hans Rohr had once pushed him out of a window from the first floor and had beaten him several times. The Red Spain Fighter, Hermann Rathering, since June1943 Kapo did not strike his fellow prisoners. Abuse by SS members for minor offenses were the order of the day. Prisoners weakened as a result of beatings  or being sick were transferred back to the Stammlager Dachau and replaced by new workers.
Killings of prisoners  are are not known to have taken place at the sub-camp 'Lebensborn'.

 After the destruction of the service buildings during air raids between 11 and 13 July 1944, the Enterprise 'Lebensborn' was relocated to Steinhöring in the following weeks. The prisoners also went to Steinhöring and the sub-camp existed there under the designation 'RFSS Personal Staff Office' until shortly before the end of the war.A number of survivors of the sub-camp 'Lebensborn' were interviewed in an investigation by the Central Office in Ludwigsburg between 1973 and 1975. The case is closed. Today, the eye clinic of the university clinic is located in Mathildenstrasse in the Central Bu sines District of Munich. 

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm

 
Sources/Acknowledgements:                                                   
Wikipedia
Der Ort des Terrors, Pages 400-


Vol 2 C.H.Beck, München 2005
Translated from German by:
Herbert Stolpmann von Waldeck
Design:d-stolpmann@gmail.com                                                          Continued under Part 14





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