Monday, September 12, 2016

DACHAU CONCENTRATION CAMP - SATELLITE CAMPS -, Part 4


DACHAU KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - 
Alphabetical Order
F -G

EREISING 
Since February 1945, at least one inmate of Dachau KZ was used to perform physical labour in the city. Whether the prisoner remained overnight there or returned daily to Dachau is not known.

Author German Text: Christoph Bacmann


FRIDOLFING

The sub-camp consisted of one male and at least four female prisoners from the KZ-Dachau, [It is more likely that the women came from Ravensbrück, as Dachau was , with a few exceptions, a male camp.sic] who had to work on the agricultural estate and mill operation of Alois Rehrl in Fridolfing ( District of Traunstein). Alois Rehrl (1890-1948) was friendly with Heinrich Himmler, who had in  1920 completed  a  one year matriculation with an agricultural intern-ship on the farm. Due to this acquaintance Rehrl in 1933 became a member of the NSDAP (Nazi Party), and later joined the civilian SS.    
As a substitute for a long-serving and deceased sawyers of Rehrl's operation, Himmler gave Rehrl the carpenter Arno Solomon, born in 1889, who was imprisoned as Jehovah Widnes  since 1937. Solomon was taken on 16 November 1943 from   Buchenwald to Dachau, where he was registered under the number 8205. From 23 November 1943 until 30 May 1944 Solomon was moved as KZ-prisoner into the sub-camp of Fridolfing. At the request Rehr'ls and presumably intervention from Himmler, made it possible, that Solomon was discharged from the concentration camp Dachau on 30 May 1944, but conscripted (dienstverpflichtet) as a free
individual to work only at Rehrl's enterprises as sawyers until May 1945, which was the end of the war anyway.

Fridolfing Panorama

Moreover, Himmler organized on the 16 May 1944, after two sons of Rehrl's were killed in action on the Eastern Front, four female German prisoners of the 'Jehovah's Witnesses' mythology (Martha Knie, Katharina Thoenes, Emma Kirscht and Auguste Wolf) from the KZ Ravensbrück for house-keeping and agricultural work.
All prisoners worked and lived on the estate., A special security was not necessary. [It was an established fact that Jehovah's Witness inmates were considered by the Authorities due to their strong faith absolutely trustworthy, sic] In addition, several forced la borers (Zwangsarbeiter) were engaged on the Estate.
During Legal Proceedings against Rehrl for being a Nazi, all prisoners had been questioned and told of their fair treatment while working for him. he was only classified as 'Less Burdened" (MInderbelasted) and no further action were taken against him. [Although the ID of former Party Members were hole-punched in the upper right corner,sic]
The prisoners remained after the war and liberation which occurred there on May 3rd 1945, for a short time on the estate before returning to their homeland (Heimat)

Author German Text: Friedbert Mühldorfer


FRIEDRICHSHAFEN
The sub-camp of Dachau-KZ Friedrichshafen on Lake Constance was established on 22 June 1943 and closed on September 26 1944. It emerged in the course of development of Aggregate 4, the later V-2 rocket. Technical problems  on  the test site at Usedom on the Baltic Sea, had led to a lengthily time delay. Therefore Colonel Walter Dornberger took as departmental chef II of the Official Development Group and testing of Army Weapons Department together with Dr. Werner von Braun as Technical Director in September 1941 contacted the Zeppelin GmbH Friedichshafen. The result was that on April 7th 1942, a joint Army-Research was, in conjunction with the Peenemünde establish in Friedrichshafen, the production of Engine-Thruster Holders. Rocket-Thruster fabrication, and, should prepare for the Stern, Centre Part(Mittelwerk) plus the serial assembly of  theA4 / V2 Rocket. In early May 1942, work began on the actual allocated surveyed  site at  Oberraderach near Friedrichshafen, with German construction experts, POW's, Russian forced labourers and later KZ prisoners and build an oxygen plant, three test beds with a Quality Control building, an independently owned power plant and a water pipeline from Immenstaad for their large reservoirs.
S soldier and captured Mittelwerk V-2 rocket motor
After Himmler had obtained the supreme responsibility over the A-4 program from Hitler in August 1943,  SS Brigade Commander Dr. Hans Kammler set about to recruit workers from Concentration Camps. A Vorkommando (Prior Work Detail) with circa 100 men built the sub-camp Friedichshafen in June 1943 These prisoners initially had to separate a portion of the forced labourers camp 'Don' of the company Zeppelin GmbH, by installing an electric fence.. This project included for storage this six housing barracks, a washing and latrine barrack, an infirmary / magazine, and direct access to the factory premises. The kitchen barrack remained within the camp, administrated by  the Airship company Don. [This abbreviation pro bely refers to the 'Dornier' aircraft manufacturer,sic].


Peenemünde Test Stand VII

During the dissolution of the camp, the  transfer list dated 25 September 1944 from Friedrichshafen to Buchenwald show 762 KZ- prisoners. Among them were in the majority Germans, Russians, and Poles, but also Frenchmen, Czechs, Yugoslavs, Belgians, Spaniards, Luxembourger, Greeks and Italians. The four Kapos were German. A Pole is cited as an inmate doctor. The oldest of the exclusively male prisoners was a 61-year-old German farmer, the youngest prisoner was 17 years old and of Russian origin.
 The prisoners carried out construction works while stationed in Friedrichshafen, created a bunker for the SS men and worked in 1944 on a deep mountain tunnelling system together with forced labourers (Zwangsarbeiter). After air strikes they removed debris and defused dud bombs. On the actual test site in Raderach they were involved in the construction work of the  oxygen production plant and the engine testing site
Dud Bomb
The initially planned capacity of 500 prisoners was never met. Although The Annual Report of Zeppelin GmbH 1943 stated 1202 KZ-prisoners for the 31st of December. {Ref.:Luftschiffbau Zeppelin, Archives 06 / -0660]. The majority of those interrogated in the postwar period, throughout the investigation against the SS member Grün, prisoners spoke of accommodation from 500 to 800 inmates.
The security personnel consisted of SS men: German, including ethnic Germans (Volksdeutsche) from Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania and Sudeten Germans. Camp leader was Untersturmführer (2nd Lieutenant) Georg Dietrich Grünberg. His rDeputy was the Sudeten-German Beck, called "Dziadek" (Grandfather). According to the testimony of former prisoners, he behaved decently towards prisoners. Grünberg, born on October 10, 1906 in Freiburg an der Elbe, had fought in the Polish and Western campaign in the SS Totenkopf Division and arrived in April 1941 in Oranienburg. While there, he was transferred In September, and put in charge with the organisation of the training company in Auschwitz. In September 1943 Grünberg came as company and camp leader to Frtiedrichshafen. He remained here until ordered as displacement to the sub-camp Überlingen which took place autumn 1944.
Several of members of the Vorkommandos reported good accommodation and sufficient food while working there in the  first few weeks. This changed, however, when the camp was fenced with barbed wire and electrified, with  floodlights during night-time and searchlights had been installed.
A contact of two prisoners with two Ukrainian women from an adjoining labour camp was discovered. The two German prisoners received each 20 lashes and were sent on November 12, 1943 to the KZ Buchenwald.
Aggregat-4 / Vergeltungswaffe-2
Prisoners mentioned two escape attempts while air raids took place, or shortly thereafter. On 2 April 1944 seven inmates fled, five Poles and two Belgians. Two Poles managed to escape, the others were taken.
On June 1, 1944 two Russians were shot after trying to escape during the air alarm, the certificate signed by the medical officer on the death certificate gives the cause by rifle bullets rupturing the longitudinal and main bronchial arteries.
About the number of other deceased prisoners, there are very few indicator points. Using various death lists, which were maintained and kept in some countries, a fair assessment of causes can be determined. The registry office Friedrichshafen noted the causes of deaths in the main,  that were bruising of the upper body and abdomen, rupture of the liver, tuberculosis, skull fractures, internal rupture, cardiac and circulatory failure and death by air strikes. The total death toll were 40, notable is the fact that 31were killed during air raids, 13 of these were German n inmates. The crematorium in Lindau which cremated 26 of the dead  including three from sub-camp Bad  Saulgau, 25 prisoners urns were buried on the Äschacher cemetery where an obelisk remembers 'In Memory' with twenty-five engraved names of the prisoners.
The famous harbour entrance of Lindau
There were eleven air raids on Friedichshafen, seven of them on the sub-camp. On 27/28 April 11944 the city and a large part of the camp were destroyed, the population (6,000 people) was evacuated. The air raid of 20 July 1944 destroyed almost the entire industrial factories. In the  Directory of the International Tracing Service at Arolsen of 1951, there  were 89 and on the 27 April attack, 20 prisoners were killed, of whom no trace can be found. Part of the prisoners were then housed at Raderach into a vacated camp by construction workers and prisoners of war. Where the other prisoners remained, is not known. September 25, 1944, the sub-camp Friedrichshafen was disbanded. The prisoners went to Buchenwald, from there to Mittelbau-Dora and on to Saulbau and Überlingen.
After the war, in some poorly repaired baracks lived displaced persons and refugees, before the place was taken b  the French Military building apartment buildings for their families and  relatives. Since the withdrawal of the French military authorities of  Friedichshafen uses these buildings as social housing. (Sozialwohnungen)
A memorial to the victims of KZ does not exist in Friedrichshafen. On 29 April 1998, 53 years after the liberation, a little square  close the Maybach company was established to commemorate the 1940 in Berlin-Plötzensee executed resistance fighter from Friedrichshafen, Fridolin Endrass, with the following commemorative plaque: 'The victims of Nationalsocialism, locals and strangers from many countries of Europoa. .Your suffering obliges us to be vigilance for human rights and human dignity'.(Den Opfern des Nationalsozialismus , Einheimischen und Fremden aus vielen Ländern Europas. Ihr Leid verpflichtet uns zu Wachsamkeit für Menschenrechte und Menschenwürde.)


Author Germa Text: Christa Tholander

POST SCRIPT
BOMBING OF FRIEDRICHSHAFEN
The German city of Friedrichshafen was bombed during World War II as part of the Allied strategic bombing campaign against German war materiel industry, particularly in the targeting of German fighter aircraft production and long range missile development.
Friedrichshafen lies in the Bodenseekreis district, on Lake Constance in the extreme south of Germany, and at the time it was at the edge of the German nightfighter defences. Targets included the Dornier Flugzeugwerke aircraft works at Manzell, the Maybach tank engine factory, the Luftschiffbau Zeppelin aircraft works and its Oberraderach test facility near Raderach, and the Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen (literally "gearwheel factory Friedrichshafen") tank gearbox factory.
In February 1944 an underground factory at Immenstaad near Friedrichshafen was suspected to be a synthetic oil and/or liquid oxygen plant] Near Überlingen,forced labor of KZ-Häftlinge im Goldbacher Stollen KZ Nebenlager Raderach and the Aufkirch subcamp of Dachau concentration camp was used for constructing an underground facility for armament manufacturing (code name "Magnesit" safe from Allied air raids.
  A night attack by 322 heavy bombers damaged several factories and destroyed the factory producing tank gearboxes. 1,234 tons of bombs were dropped causing (an estimated) 67 per cent of the town's built-up area to be destroyed.

USAAF P-47 Thunderbolt fighters, assigned to protect 8th Air Force bomber formations and to hunt for German fighters
The Casablanca Directive
At the January 1943 Casablanca Conference, the Combined Chiefs of Staff agreed to conduct the Combined Bomber Offensive (CBO), and the British Air Ministry issued the Casablanca directive on 4 February with the object of:
 "The progressive destruction and dislocation of the German military, industrial and economic systems and the undermining of the morale of the German people to a point where their capacity for armed resistance is fatally weakened. Every opportunity to be taken to attack Germany by day to destroy objectives that are unsuitable for night attack, to sustain continuous pressure on German morale, to impose heavy losses on German day fighter force and to conserve German fighter force away from the Russian and Mediterranean theatres of war."

                                                                                                 

GABLINGEN

The KZ sub-camp Gablingen, north of Augsburg was probably built in January or February 1944. The camp was first mentioned in documents  as of 21 February 1944th Its original purpose was to provide labour and store outsourced finished aircraft parts at the airbase from the production facility of Messerschmitt AG-Augsburg.
The wooden barracks built at the edge of the air base near the railway station of Gablingen between the railway line Augsburg-Donauwörth and what is today's federal highway 2 and  runs near the railway tracks, towards the Gersthofer factory of the former IG Farben (now Clariant). In addition to the wooden barracks, it seems that the airmen's garrison was temporarily cleared by them  to accommodate prisoners.
The total number  of 362 inmates in January / February 1944, rose rapidly to about 1,000 men. The increase was due to the relocation of 600 survivors after an air raid on the sub-camp Augsburg-Haunstetten  [Over 100 prisoners were killed during this air raid,sic] in April 1944 which destroyed the camp.The Gablinger prisoner society was mainly of international mix. They were guarded by SS men, including some former Wehrmacht soldiers who had been incorporated into the SS

Gablingen Kaserne and Field Station
In April, the prisoners sometimes worked in the Augsburger Messerschmitt Werke and partly on the Gablinger airbase. In addition, they were used in dud bomb search commandos around Augsburg City and for work on the Air Base. They were returned by train daily back to camp after completion of their assigned tasks.
About living conditions within the sub-camp little is known. Eyewitnesses did mention the usual conditions. Apart from other incidents, some prisoners still remember exactly the executions by the SS: The hanging of six prisoners was always coming up,  because of foodstuff (Lebensmittel) theft, it was claimed to have been committed even though the execution took place in the camp of Haunstetten, where they did not stay themselves.
On 24 April 1944, the camp was destroyed by an air raid in which there were at least two deaths.The destroyed camp was never rebuilt. The survivors then had to stay in spite of the still cool weather in a gravel pit near the railway line Augsburg-Donauwörth. After several days, the prisoners were transferred to various other camps. A portion was taken by truck or train into the camp at Leonberg to work in the tunnel factory of Messerschmitt AG. Another large contingent  was brought by the SS to the Air Force [Luftwaffe] News-casting [Nachrichten] barracks in Aigsburg-Pfersee, where quickly a new sub-camp was built to accommodate the loaned KZ-prisoners at Messerschmitt AG in Augsburg again. From Pfersee some  of the former prisoners from Gablinger and Haunstetter were transferred to other camps, mainly to Kotten, all sites near Messerschmitt AG factories.
It never came to any trials as to the killings in Haunstetten, neither those that took place in Gablingen. Investigations of the Central Office in Ludwigsburg were conducted as late as 1973 and discontinued without results. In Gablingen there are no signs of any type of remembrance that camps ever existed..
Authoe German Text: Wolfgang Kucera

Post Script:
One of the most interesting aspects of the history of Gablingen is the complex tunnel system beneath the old aerodrome, which may have been used to conceal the existence of a Messerschmitt test facility located there prior to, and during, the Second World War. The Messerschmitt plant used labourers from the Dachau concentration camp as mentioned above. Messerschmitt's rocket-powered3 Messerschmitt Me 16were tested at this facility as early as 1941[370 were built,sic].

Messerscmitt Me 163 Komet
American forces seized the base almost unopposed on 1 May 1945 and the facility was quickly secured. The IX Engineer Command engineers from the 833rd Aviation Engineer Battalion moved into the facility and designated the base as Advanced Landing Ground "R-77", although no combat unit moved to the airfield until 15 May, after the German Capitulation to perform occupation duty, and  renamed it as Army Airfield Station Gablingen., Several USAAF groups were assigned to the airfield until 1 July 1946, when the facility was turned over to the United States Army. Gablingen was primarily used by the Army as regular troop barracks, housing various elements of the different divisions stationed in the Augsburg area. Around 1970, the 3rd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division moved to Gpping
The former military facilities were closed in 1998. Its primary use was signals intelligence collection during the Cold War.


GARMISCH-PARTENKIRCHEN

In Garmisch-Partenkirchen during 1944 hospitals for members of the SS were set up towards the end of the war. These were three hotels, namely 'Haus Wittelsbach', Haus Partenkirchen' and 'Sonnenbichl' were confiscated by the SS. Since the beginning of the war all hotels in Garmisch served as reserve hospitals (although not necessarily used) were under the administration of the locally stationed Lazaret Department. Probably around the 10th December 1944, about 14 prisoners from Dachau were used in these hospitals, documents indicate that some of them stayed in the hotel 'Sonnenbichl' where seven of the prisoners worked. The latest transfer of prisoners to Garmisch-Partebkirchen took place on 23 March 1945. Two of the prisoners were originally detained for political reasons in Dachau. All existing statements refer exclusively to the military hospital in hotel 'Sonnenbichl'. The prisoners were in a room of the former servants' quarters, were they  were housed and slept in in two-storey single bunk beds. They were in the main only supervised by  three SS orderlies and and watched by one commando leader who lived right in the room next to them. The prisoners were neither mistreated nor were any killings committed. About the working and living conditions as well as the hygienic conditions there is no particular information available.

Garmisch-Partenkirchen. In the background, the peaks of the Alpspitze and Zugspitze.

The prisoners had predominantly perform bricklaying, carpenter y- and other maintenance work as require, but were otherwise left alone. They stayed until the liberation by the American Army on 27 April 1945 when they arrived unopposed in Garmisch Partenkirchen. The hotels' Wittelsbach 'and' Sonnenbichl' still exist today. The prisoners who worked there in the last months of the war, about their fate, nothing is known.

Author German Text: Barbara Hutzelmann

GENDORF

The sub-camp Gendorf an der Alz in the district of  Altötting was in existence from October 1943 to April 1945. Approximately 200 to 250 male prisoners worked in the Anorgana Factory, a subsidiary of IG Farben, which produced raw materials for artillery ammunition. At the request of the head of some IG Farben and chairman of several committees of the Four-Year Plan and Armament Department, Otto Ambros, requited the head of the SS WVHA, Oswald Pohl, to transfer skilled workers from the KZ-Dachau to Gendorf. In fact, they had only about half of the prisoners with the desired qualifications as metal workers and welders. Yet the prisoners worked in various departments of the factory. In addition, they carried out earthworks. The KZ-inmates  worked 56 hours per week, on top of that, on weekends, they were forced to look for mines and eliminate dud bombs which Allied planes had dropped and carry out loading trucks with finished material, plus receiving deliveries. For unskilled workers the company Anorgana paid 4 RM. for skilled workers 6 RM to the SS. [It is not clear if this was a daily rate,sic]

As camp commander acted initially Hauptscharführer Simon Kiern, who led the construction, later it was Hauptscharführer Josef Neuner, Oberscharführer Österle, Hauptscharführer Albert Binder and lastly SS Sturmscharführer Otto Stolle. At first 29, later 40 members of the SS took over guarding the KZ-prisoners. Detainees reported repeated mistreatment by the camp leader Kiern and Binder. Also Kapos participated on the orders of SS members in the assaults. The commander also imposed prison sentences that had to be currently served in a concrete bunker. Executions  did not take place, although this was threatened with to some KZ-prisoners who had smuggled a radio set into the camp.                                                                                                            
The camp, which was located within the plant fence, consisted of four barracks, a kitchen and a g barrack for the guards. The KZ- overseers monitored with two towers equipped with machine guns the camp premises. Though the actual factory cpmplex was about one kilometre away. The hygienic conditions assessed by former prisoners in retrospect, claimed  to be satisfactory,

According to official sources, the food rations totalled for each inmate 480 grams of meat, 4,600 g of bread, 80 g margarine per week.The prisoners thus had sufficient rations. As a premium they allegedly received beer and cigarettes. That they actually received these meals, however, is highly questionable, because of the number of  sick inmates which was comparatively high. The company physician Dr. Arthur Hartung, stated after the war that the detainees were transferred only back to Dachau if their medical condition had already advanced to to a critical stage. In 1944 the Administration directed work and provide an  infirmary, in which a Polish nurse was on duty. During this time in 1944 within the first six months,  47 sick prisoners were sent back to the main camp of Dachau. After their recovery, a portion went back to Gendorf, few remained in main camp, others the SS deported to Buchenwald, Flossenburg and Mauthausen. Three prisoners one Pole GankoMirrofan and the Russians Wasyl Gusow and Ivan Mironenko - died of poisoning after they had drunk methyl alcohol.

Industrial Park Werk Gendorf
Former Hoechst production plant (IG Farben) Gendorf part of the Bavarian chemistry triangle. Now cite for different chemistry companies like Clariant and Dyneo


On 19 May 1944, a delegation from Dachau visited the sub-camp Gendorf. The camp commander of the KZ-Dachau Eduard Weiter, the second camp physician Dr. Franz Behind Meyer and Walter Langleisst, commander of Mühldorfer sub-camp complexes,, went there to gather information and conditions of the camp and asses the  work performance which was treated as war important operation and thereby received preferences in the allocation of prisoners. The management of Anorgana had submitted a request for a further 60 prisoners from Dachau and also insisted that the unskilled labourers should be  replaced  by qualified-skilled manpower, in particular pipe fitters and welders. Both requests were accepted. Engineer Wurzler would select young prisoners in the main camp. The plan was, to train those prisoners in the apprentice workshop as locksmiths and pipe fitters and also to give them German lessons, however, this plan never materialised.  Obersturmführer Weiter demanded that the prisoners had to be separated both, the skilled labour force  from other individuals remaining within the camp. He also demanded a stricter surveillance and a death strip in the camp as an essential  factor of security. [Weiter did not face trial as he fled Dachau immediately before its liberation and made it to Austria where he died in mysterious circumstances, possibly being killed by a fellow SS member angry at his lack of ideological conviction,sic]

After the dissolution of the camp in April 1945 the prisoners were transferred to Máhldorf. Thus their life and working conditions deteriorated dramatically. The majority of the prisoners worked on construction projects in the building of an underground bunkers. Some of the prisoners went to Mittergars where they built accommodation for refugees and bombed-out families. There were escapes, seven prisoners from Ljubljana were successful. When at the end of April the American Army approached the Mühldorfer sub-camp, the prisoners were evacuated in railway wagons, going  in a south westerly direction, they were liberated in Seehaupt and Tutzing at Lake Starnberg. The ones left behind in the Waldlager, mainly the sick and lame inmates celebrated their freedom on May 2nd 1945.
After the war American Military Courts, charged SS members who had served in Gendorf.  Former camp commandant Simon Kern was convicted in Dachau Process and executed on 28 May 1946.
There is no memorial stone, reminiscent of the plight of concentration camp prisoners on the former site

Author German Text: Christa Tholander


Acknowledgements:/Sources:

Wikipedia,

Der Ort des Terrors, Vol.:2-page:333-
Verlag C.H.BeckMünchen 2005

Translated from German by:

Herbert Stolpmann von Waldeck

Editing/Design:

d_stolpmann@hotmail.com

                                                                                  Continued under Part 5
       

Friday, August 19, 2016

DACHAU CONCENTRATION CAMP - SATELLITE CAMPS -, Part 3


DACHAU KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - 
Alphabetical Order  
E- F

ELLWANGEN

Ellwangen in Würtenberg located 100 kilometres from Stuttgart was first mentioned in in its capacity as a sub-camp of Dachau KZ on July 1, 1941, and existed until October 17, 1942. It was not an independent camp, but was domiciled  within the SS-barracks of Ellwangen. The sub-camp was opened up with a prisoner transport of 25 men from Dachau at the beginning of Juli1941. This first transport followed a little later with another ten prisoners. Thus the total number of prisoners amounted to 35

In Ellwangen polish prisoners, 'criminals' and 'anti-socials' were present. Among them, except for a few Checks and Poles there were no others than German prisoners, and  no Jews. The sub-camp was housed in the basement of the old administration building of the former police academy, which consisted in total of three bedrooms, a lounge and a toilet. The prisoners were used mainly to work within the SS-Garrison. Ten prisoners were employed as a tailors and shoemakers [it is more likely that they were boot makers, as the SS did not wear shoes,sic] others maintained the uniforms of SS personals, while few worked outside the compound as tilers,at an oven setting company.

ELLWANGEN city centre 

The ever-changing guards were provided by the in Ellwangen stationed in SS Kradschützenbatallion(Motorcycle Protection Battalion) and usually came from the convalescent members of the company. The labour team was led by an Oberscharführer, apparently also from the SS-garrison at Ellwangen. In July 1942 he was replaced by an Oberscharführer transferred from Dachau to Ellwangen, who was considered as cruel (grausam) by the inmates. Still, the work management after this replacement for  the men in the sub-camp remained the same. Whether this division of authority over labour deployment was responsible for fair treatment of prisoners can only be assumed, as it was difficult to have it verified. The blatantly as cruel SS-man towards prisoners, the Oberscharführer from Dachau, could only unfold his influence outside the camp's activities.During questioning of the prisoners In Ellwangen they knew nothing on the question of inmate killings, nothing was known to them, although the number of prisoners fell form the beginning of this Arbeitskommandos until its dissolution on 17th October 1942. Individual statements of detainees claimed that some prisoners were returned to Dachau  or transferred to other concentration camps. At Dachau two transferred detainees have been shot, whether by operations there or on the initiative of the Ellwanger security personnel could not be clarified. The Oberscharführer from Dachau drcided to have the sub-camp dissolve by October 11942 and the prisoners returned because it was  not a war effort function that they performed in Ellwangen.
The Central Office of the State Justice Administration  (tionandesjutizverwaltungen) in Ludwigsburg,pronounced to close in 1973 regarding the events in the sub-camp Ellwangen without any results. At present the  Bundeswehr is using the former garrison,  there is no sign or memory of the past.

Author German text: Immo Eberl


APPENDIX
 After World War II members of the 17th SS Panzergrenadier Division were convicted of a number of war crimes, involving the shooting of foreign concentration camp prisoners in Ellwangen during the war. [ Reference:ase Nr.111". Justiz und NS-Verbrechen (Nazi Crimes on Trial) Vol. III. Retrieved 23 July 2015.]

Postmark from the Ukrainian DP Camp in EllwangN
In April 1945, US Army troops occupied Ellwangen and until 1946, stationed various Army units at the kaserne — the former German Tank School. From 1946 the International Refugee Organisation (IRO) used the kaserne as a displaced persons camp for 3,000 Ukrainian refugees until 1951. In 1951, the US Army — the combat engineer battalion and medical battalion of the 28th Infantry Division again took over the facility. In September 1955 the Americans returned the kaserne to the German government


ESCHELBACH

In Eschelbach at Wiolnzach 50 kilometres north of Dachau, Salesian Sisters cared for and were nursing outpatients, maintained  a kindergarten and taught home economics at their school. Originating from the middle of the 19th century the building served after the outbreak of war as 'resettlement camp'. On 27 July 1944, the Sisters received from Martin Bormann's Party Chancellery in Berlin the eviction notice. The buildings were urgently needed for 'war effort purposes'. In the courtyard of the Eschelbacher Don Rosco home a one-story, surrounded with a barbed wire fence,  a one-story barrack was erected. From December 12, 1944 approximately 40 prisoners of the KZ-Dachau were there quartered. They came from Germany, France, Italy, Poland, Serbia and Holland and were housed under the most primitive hygienic conditions and grossly inadequate provisions. The detainees should lay underground cables up to the city of Pfaffenhofen.
[The women's institute is known as the Salesian Sisters of Don Bosco or, more officially, the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians, (FMA sic]).

City Hall at Eschelbach
The then 23 year-old Polish prisoner Grzegorz Niemirowicz said after the war that the labour assignment was done by a detachment commander and was supervised by four other SS men. He himself had never witnessed any mistreatment, but a friend of his, observed that a German prisoner had been shot during the cable laying by an SS man. A witness reported that Eschelbacher women have given the prisoners secretly bread.
The sub-camp Eschelbach was dissolved on 4 April 1945th. The detainees were transferred back to the main camp Dachau. After the war the Don-Bosco Sisters returned again to their old premises. No investigation or trial ever took place,  there is nothing that reminds one to a wartime sub-camp.

Author German text: Reinhard Haiplik.

APPENDIX
The Salesian Sisters of St John Bosco or Daughters of Mary Help of Christians are the sister order of the Salesians of Don Bosco. They were founded by Saint Maria Mazzarello in 1872 to work alongside Saint John Bosco in his teaching projects in Turin. They continue to be a teaching order worldwide. The sisters use the post nominal F.M.A., Figlie di Maria Ausiliatrice (Daughters of Mary Help of Christians).

Enter picture: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salesian_Sisters_of_Don_Bosco

Salesian sister caring for sick and poor in former Madras Presidency, India
The year 1880 saw the second missionary expedition of the Salesian Sisters to Patagonia (Argentina), as they followed their Salesian brothers who had prepared the way for their arrival. In 1881, Mother Mazzarello took ill and died at Nizza Monferrato on May 14, at age 44.[4] At the time of her death there were 26 houses and 166 Sisters. For further reading Google:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salesian_Sisters_of_Don_Bosco

FELDAFING

In Feldafing. District of Starnberg (Bavaria) was since the spring of 1942, a sub-camp of  KZ Dachau. The first group of approximately 30 prisoners arrived there early April 1942. The camp was probably already closed in January at the beginning of 1945, and the prisoners were transported back to Dachau.
The camp was located on the terrain which at the time stood the 'Reich School of the NSDAP'. The school, 'founded as the National German High School at Lake Starnberg and was in 1934 renamed by the SA the 'National Socialistic  German High school'. It was conceived as an elite school, in which high achiever as future leaders for the Nazi state would be indoctrinated and educated accordingly. However, from 1937/38 the NSDAP began extensive construction measures for new buildings on a large meadow and wooded area (Waldgelände) south of Feldafing. The intended plan remained unfinished. The authority responsible for the Reichsschule construction, was the 'Hoch Tief AG' company with headquarters in Munich.

The camp which was situated away from the construction-project for the school in the north-east of the site, consisting of at least one wooden barrack on a concrete base for the prisoners, the structure was surrounded by a high barbed wire fence e  (possibly electrically charged) , and a second barrack for the guards, this team comprised  of eight to twelve SS men. In the nearby barracks lived civil construction workers.(Arbeiter) .In total there  existed five closely  located (beianander gelegende) barracks where construction workers, prisoners and SS guards were accommodated near to each other. The prisoner barracks had a size of about 20 - 25x4 meters square, divided into two rooms furnished with three-story bunks. The information on the availability of conveniences vary greatly. The minimum number of inmates (Belegunfszahl) which witnesses can recall, was 30 people, the highest at 100. The prisoner Josef Brzezinski indicates that 'later on the number of prisoners rose to about from 100 to 300 [...] in the  two prisoners  barracks that were provided for them'. In rooms they had served as dining and day rooms. There were also a laundry room and an attached toilet. According to the witness Tadeusz Etter, the prisoners had contacts with the 'free workers', while they toiled side by side.


Below are thumbnails of a lettercard postmarked February 14, 1944, from an inmate Stefan Belka, at the "Arbeitskommando Feldafing".





The inmates who came  apparently all from Dachau were mainly used for earth- and levelling work in the development of the site, also in road construction and as some witnesses assert, in the construction of air raid shelters (which can not be verified), and at the end of the war , close to nearby village of Tutzing for tunnelling and working in the Dornier aeroplane plants. Moreover, it reports on the following works: repair of a jump, board on Lake Starnberg, plastering interiors, food transport from Feldafing to Tutzing


                                                                       Lake Starnberg,
Memorial Cross at the site where the body of King Ludwig II of Bavaria was found in Lake Starnberg, after a struggle with his doctor during an escape attempt from his asylum

The conditions under which the prisoners live and had to work, were cruel. The working day began at 8/9 in the morning and ended at 1830/1900 pm. In its work, the prisoners of the weather were exposed where they seem to provide heat more than made cold. They had hard labor under brutal pressure of the SS men and Kapos afford and suffered from hunger. Some inmates say the food in Feldafing was better than in Dachau, others say the opposite. Tadeusz Etter specifies: 'Before starvation sat in, what saved us prisoners was the opportunity to receive parcels with food from home.
The occupancy of the camp apparently changed often - possibly because many prisoners were not used to the physical hardships they were exposed to, and had to be transferred back to Dachau. It is also noticeable that among the witnesses questioned, that four catholic priests from Poland were three, of whom it was said they had been retrained in Dachau as bricklayers.[This makes seance, as Catholic Priests mainly from Poland built 'Baracke X',sic] In camp there were mainly Germans also  Italians, French and Greeks, but apparently mostly were East Europeans.

.Baracke X, at KZ Dachau, which Polish Priests, retrained as bricklayers, allegedly built.
The barracks were required after the dissolution of the camp in January 1945, together with the former buildings of the Reichsschule since the occupation of Feldafing by the US Army, and was converted as a camp for Displaced Persons (DP). After 1956,  part and  most of the former property, reverted back to the Federal Republic of Germany, with the Bundeswehr  continued a military base with a Telecommunication School and a Technical School for Electrical Engineering were opened. The concrete bases and some of the barrack walls stood there for sometime, well after the war, before some years later there has been near the lower Thurn- and Taxis-Street a housing estate developed.
In March 1969, the Central Office of the Landesjutizverwaltungen began to determine the elucidation of Nazi crimes for killing action in the sub-camp Feldafing. A mediation was initiated by the prosecutor at the regional court of Munich against Alfred Minik and others on suspicion of murder up to 1976. The proceedings, set on 28 July 1978 closed without a verdict.

Author German Text: Ursula Ludz


FISCHBACHAU

In Fischbachau within the county of  Miesbach (Upper Bavaria) had from 21 September 1944 until January 21, 1945, a sub-camp under the administration of KZ-Dachau. These prisoners had to build makeshift homes (Behilfsheime) made of wood with a brick foundation. According to statements made by a former inmate they were intended for families of senior SS officers from Munich. During the existence of this sub-camp, the detained men built two properties for four families. In this camp the make-up of these men were mainly German, Austrian, Italian, French and Polish political prisoners and few Jehovah's Witnesses, used as 'forced labour'.. There are no indications that Inmate Functionaries  or Kapos were present. The men were mostly skilled workers, who had been selected based on their occupation.
The prisoners were in housed  in three OT huts [Organisation Todt, sic] which are small dwellings made of pressed paper boards with a ceiling height of approximately 1.60 Metre, which had been built on the cow pasture of a local farmer. In each cabin slept six or seven men. Although the prisoners had to work hard, but received special rations (Sonderverpflegung), so they felt the conditions in the camp as bearable. 'In Fischbachau was by far the best treatment of all camps, where I have been.' judged an inmate. [Statement by Georg J.29.10.1969, in: ibid

Panorama view of Fischbachau

The guards consisted of six SS men who did not harass, neither ill-treat or kill any inmates. This was confirmed by all those that had been interviewed. The guards themselves were also housed in identical OT-huts as the prisoners.Other security personnel were  SS- Corporal Hans Tiedtke, and Sergeant Albert Hummel. Tiedtke was transferred after being wounded on the Eastern Front in 1944 to guard duty in Fischbachau.
All the prisoners were returned on 21 January 1945 in trucks to the main camp Dachau. There were no longer any further  construction possible because of the harsh winter conditions.
After the war, the buildings were occupied by refugees. In Even today, both houses are inhabited. In 1959 the farmers whose land was confiscated because of the construction (and partially compensated) had their land returned.
The standard investigations by the Central Office of Justice in Ludwigsburg ceased in 1976.

Author German Text: Barbara Hutzemann

FISCHEN

In Fischen im Allgäu was a sub-camp for male prisoners, it is first mentioned on the  date of 6 November 1944. Presumably it originated as a sub-camp in August or September 1944 as an external working commando of some 20 kilometres north located sub-camp of Kottern because the prisoners came mainly from Kottern and also from Ulm. Probably the four barracks of the camp were outside the township near the railway station. The sub-camp was mentioned in the Quadrennial of the Dachau camp doctor 27 March 1945, which reads: 'The camp is still under construction and does give a primitive impression. From the point of view of the local camp leader, Listening to the same lamentations  as in Kottern: 'No deliveries of building materials by Messerschmitt'. About the situation of the prisoners, the Dachau camp doctor judged: - 'The conditions certainly euphemistically - as follows; 'The food is good and plentiful. The kitchen and food storage in a proper state. The ablution and washing facilities are primitive. The infirmary is operating on a makeshift basis. Delousing equipment, although essential are still missing'.
Detainees reported in contrast of holes in the roofs of the huts, dirt, vermin, and living on starvation rations.

Map-Location of Fischen within Oberallgäu district 
On average about 250 prisoners were detained, who came from Germany, Austria, the Soviet Union, Italy, France and Poland. Like the prisoners of the sup-camp at Kaufbeuren they worked in Fishing in the Messerschmitt works, where they toiled  in alternative  day and night shifts producing airframes for fighter planes. They were also used on road construction. About the third of April the workforce of prisoners in the sub-camp stood at 245, at the end of April 1945, only 127 were left. A part of the camp was evacuated in early April, and transferred into the camp at Kottern. In Fishing the dissolution phenomena became noticeable. The Camp Commandant Schmidt left with most of the security guards and did leave the prisoners to their fate.

Fischen
After the  Central Agencies in Ludwigsburg advised the Munich prosecutor to proceed with it's investigation of criminal activities at Fischen against 'UNKNOWN' (Unbekannte), However, this was ceased in 1977. Most of the living  survivors testified no homicides ever took place. IYet it should be  remembered that prisoners were punished for food theft and escape attempts, Certain is, that on 7 April 1945 two prisoners from sub-camp Fischen were to the main camp Dachau, reported as dead. . Furthermore, prisoners were shot on the evacuation march, but it can no longer be determined, whether a death march actually had taken place. What is certain, that two Austrian resistance fighters Franz Storkan and Gustav Teply, from the sub-camp Fischen , were hanged near the crematorium at Dachau KZ on 7 April 1945th Teply had been brought despite his sickness from the infirmary by the SS to Dachau for the hanging. [Both had been members of the Thälman-Brigade fighting in Spain, taken prisoners and as German citizen under a death sentence as an enemy (Communists) of the state,sic]To date, the foundations of the cams in the forest alongside the railway tracks between fishing and Oberstdorf are recognizable and wall remainsstill visual-able. A plaque or another public reminder of the existence of a sub-camp does not exist.

Author German Text: Edith Raim


FISCHHORN

The sub-camp Fischhorn was located on the western outskirts of Bruck on the  Grossglocknerstrasse, five kilometres from the county town of Zell am See in Salzburg. The entire site of the prisoner barracks is no longer visible. The staff of the SS was at that time accommodated at the Fischhorn castle.
In Fischhorn existed two sub-camps: one at the Central Construction Office of the Waffen which was part of the SS-WVHA Office Group 'C' and a second camp which was controlled by the  SS Remonte Office. (Cavalry training for a horses) On the entire complex of the Estate, there were 100 horses housed. Both sub-camps were opened on the  6th September 1944, and existed until the Liberation in May 1945
The castle belonged together with an operating agricultural Estate to the former German Ambassador in Peru, N. Gildermeister. The property was expropriated in 1943 and requisitioned by the SS. The Staff of an SS division and the SS Remonte-Office moved into the Castle. According to the former prisoner Franc Mlinaric about 50 SS men were stationed there.
The first Kommandant was the 50-year-old Hans Hahn, who had been in the KZ's of  Flossenburg and Dachau and had done duties as a security guard since 1939 and was put into this position at at Fischhorn, but was replaced due to rivalries with SS cavalry unit on 10 February 1945 by Oberführer Hermann Rostek, who had previously been commander in Roddolfzell. The number of SS-guards can not be specified. They were Volksdeutsche, ethnic  Germans,, whom the prisoners termed as 'Bessarabia-Germans' from Romania, mostly young people aged around 20 years as they recall. A personal or spatial subdivision of the prisoner commands can no longer be traced, and it seems unlikely that such a document ever existed. All the billing invoices for Fischhorn were submitted separately. This might be confusing as the command of the central building site managed within the Office of Group C-Dachau  in February 1045, and was by far largest, while requests of KZ-Workers for the SS Remonte-Department went direct to the SS agencies.

Castle Fischhorn with Meier House (right foreground)
The size of the labour commando was made up of 150 male inmates. As far as nationality structure is concerned, prisoners from the Sowjet Union outweighed them all, followed by the French, Poles and Italians. The first transport of 50 prisoners is recorded to have arrived on the 9th September 1944, a second with 100 prisoners followed on 18 September. Kapo was probably the 44 year old, on  preventive detention, Karl Herkert from Hamburg. The age of the other prisoners was between 18 and 35 years. The individual working commandos remained static in the meantime time and was reduced only in the last weeks before the liberation by half. During the  liberation only 50 prisoners were found at Fischhorn sub-camp. Five of them were interviewed after 1969 even though they had settled in foreign countries while investigations of the German Public Prosecutor took place.

The prisoners were used to build stables for the SS Horse Riding School and worked as well in small work details in the agriculture part of the Estate.The prisoner Mllinariic worked in a detail, in which a group of eight prisoners about 300 meters from the camp, in a remote creek and dug building material. The prisoners at work stood in the water and had only  canvas shoes as footwear. They had no mechanical tools available to them. In autumn 1944 Karl Koch was transferred from the sub-camp Neustift to Fischhorn, he stated that he oversaw a work detail in Zell am See which built large halls for the 'Remonte School, which were then used as warehouses. According to Koch, the commando was billeted in the attic of the Economic Operation Dpt.of Castle Fischhorm.

Spanish Riding School Lipizzan stallions in the Winter Riding School arena
This young Lipizzan stallion is midway through the graying process

This young Lipizzan stallion is midway through the graying proces

 The living and sleeping facilities of  the prisoners were in a deplorable state. According to inmate Mllmaric they lived 'in an assembled wooden barrack , with simple plain  walls that had cracks in them,which meant, it was continually drafty. The flooring was uneven, and mainly buckled in most places. Basically the barracks were very cold. We had only one oven for heating. [...] However, the furnace heated not much, since it was the only one in the 20 meter long barrack'. The washing facilities existed for the occupants only in the water-trough of the horses. There was an  outside sheltered hut for  prisoner which served as a latrine. A similar picture is mentioned in the Quadrennial of the SS camp physician dated 27 March 1945, that Fischhorn was in a primitive state. There was a lack of appropriate accommodation ', and also the infirmary was only was only operating on a makeshift basis.  The toilet facilities were insufficient and unhygienic. Th kitchen operation on the whole unclean.

Concentration Camp Toilets 
Among these living and working conditions, the prisoners lost more and more in weight, and suffered fromnumerous diseases. 'We all lived under very difficult conditions and poor working arrangements, so that the work meant a gradual physical exhaustion of the prisoners. We were undernourished, without any health-care. The lice bit deeply until the blood flowed'.so stated inmate Mllinaric who contracted Pneumonia  and injuries to his Ribcage combined with high fever, 'received no warm place to lie down and no extra clothes. After 20 days of the establishment of the camp,15 inmates were returned due to illness to the main camp (Stammlager) Dachau and on the 30 September 1944 replaced by the same number of new prisoners, all between the ages of 18 and s4 years Three of-exchanged returnees died soon afterwards in Dachau. One further exchange of 15 prisoners rook place, according to Karl Koch in the fall 1944. The new arrivals however were together with their guards transferred from the sub-camp Neustift. Only one prisoner has died from poor living condition in Fischhorn. Targeted (gezielte) killings of prisoners were not observed, so that the investigation of the German post-war Public Prosecutor were not perused.. Fischhorn in Austria offered under all other controlled sub-camps by Dachau, except Weißsee the worst (schlechteste) of living conditions for inmates.inmates..schlecteste
During July 1945 Fischhorn Castle  was together with the Country Estate  returned to it's former owner N. Gildermeister. After his dearh the Castle went to his descendants, it is now in privately owned. (In Privatbesitz)

Author German Text: Albert Knoll


Acknowledgements:/Sources:
Wikipedia,
Der Ort des Terrors, Vol.:2-page 325
Verlag C.H.BeckMünchen 2005
Translated from German by:
Herbert Stolpmann von Waldeck
Editing/Design:
d_stolpmann@hotmail.com
d
       

                                                                           Continued under Part 4


POSTSCRIPT
Obergruppenführer Hermann Otto Fegelein also became the Commandant of the SS Horse Farm at Fischhorn Castle near Zell am See, Austria. Although he had a house with his wife, a love-nest apartment in Berlin, and a bedroom in Hitler's underground bunker below the Reich Chancellery, it was the farm where he was in charge and had his best friends. The day-to-day operation of the horse farm was managed by Erwin Haufler. The administrative officer was Franz Konrad, of Warsaw ghetto fame, who skimmed almost a million dollars off the top of the Nazi loot and buried it in various relatives' yards. Himmler had a safe and many steel filing cabinets in the castle during the time it was the SS horse farm.
Hermann Fegelein as SS-Standartenführer
Fegelein  was a senior officer of the Waffen-SS in Nazi Germany, a member of Adolf Hitler's entourage, and brother-in law to Eva Braun through his marriage to her sister, Gretl. However, he probably died before Braun married Hitler, and details of his death are controversial.
Early career
Fegelein was born in Ansbach in Bavaria. As a young boy he worked at his father's horse riding school in Munich. When it closed due to the world-wide economic depression of the 1920s, he worked as a stable boy for Christian Weber, who in the 1930s was one of the original members of the Nazi Party.
In 1925, Fegelein joined the Reiterregiment 17, leaving it in 1928 to join the Bavarian State Police in Munich. Whilst in Munich, he came into early contact with National Socialism, joining the Party (membership number 1,200,158) and the SA in 1930. By 1931, Fegelein had transferred to the SS.
A note on his rank. Calling Fegelein an Obergruppenführer is not exactly accurate. Most SS officers had two ranks, one for the Waffen-SS, the other for the Allgemeine SS. The Waffen-SS rank was usually higher than the rank of the Allgemeine SS. Fegelein's actual rank was "SS Gruppenführer and Generaleutnant der Waffen-SS." His last film appearance was in a Nazi newsreel shot on Hitler's birthday (April 20, 1945). This is the infamous newsreel where Hitler is giving iron crosses to children for destroying Red Army tanks with the German antitank weapon known as the Panzerfaust. Fegelein is in the background; his plainly visible collar tabs are those of a Gruppenführer.
SS membership
On July 25, 1937, Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler, by special order of the Oberabschnitt (SUD), created the SS Main Riding School in Munich and made Hermann Fegelein the School Commander. Only former royalty from the Hohenzollern and Kaiserzeit dynasties could send representatives, along with the top heads of German industry, who donated to Martin Bormann's German industry fund. Hermann requested his friend, Captain Marten von Barnekow, be allowed to enter the horse riding school, and Himmler granted his request.
Fegelein rose quickly through the ranks and was briefly sent to the Russian front in 1943 with the Florian Geyer Cavalry Division, along with members of his SS Riding School (Haupt-Reitschule München). He had served under Reinhard Heydrich, and being an SS officer, was involved in the Nazi rituals at Wewelsburg Castle. The Florian Geyer is reputed to have murdered thousands of innocent civilians in the Pripet Marshes while under Fegelein's command.
Relationship with Himmler
Fegelein was nicknamed Heinrich Himmler's "golden boy"; his boyish face and subservient attitude gained him considerable favour with Himmler, who treated him like a son. Himmler granted him the best assignments (mostly related to horses), the best staff and generous budgets. When he was injured on the Russian front, Himmler brought him home to work in Hitler's staff as Himmler's adjutant and representative of the Waffen SS.
Already the holder of the Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves, Fegelein received an ever greater distinction with the award of the Swords to his Knight's Cross on 30 July 1944. Heinrich Himmler also presented him with a gold-plated Walther P-38 pistol with a mother-of-pearl handle, decorated with oak leaves, and Fegelein's name carved on it, and bearing the inscription Meine Ehre heißt Treue ("loyalty is my honor") on the barrel.
Marriage
His politically arranged marriage took place on June 3, 1944, and a two-day celebration was held at Hitler's and Martin Bormann's Obersalzberg mountain homes. It was the largest, longest and most publicized, purely social event Hitler ever attended. Photographs of the wedding dinner appeared in Britain's weekly Picture Post Magazine the next year after the war ended, showing Hitler at the festivities. A marriage license was obtained at the local town clerk's office and Heinrich Himmler presided over the simple ceremony in which a Pagan ritual substituted for exchanging wedding rings. This ceremony was photographed and filmed by the Nazis.
Hitler had been actively trying to find a husband for Gretl for some time—doing so would provide a valid reason for presenting Eva Braun to visitors and bringing her to official functions. Prior to the marriage, Hitler often forced Braun to hide herself from other Nazi officials when they visited.

Gretl Braun had an extremely bad reputation as being promiscuous—within the SS, she was nicknamed "the nymphomaniac of the Obersalzberg." Hitler had earlier tried to marry her off to a Captain Fritz Darges, but Darges actually asked to be sent to fight in the Eastern Front rather than marry her. Moreover, at the time of the marriage, Gretl Braun was pregnant by a man other than Fegelein.

Gretl with her second husband, Kurt Berlinghoff
Fegelein became known as the playboy of the Third Reich, and after his marriage to Gretl Braun, engaged in numerous extramarital affairs.
Nonetheless, Hitler was apparently aware of Fegelein's dalliances, and while not entirely approving, turned a blind eye to them. This was common within Hitler's inner circle. Martin Bormann had 10 children with his wife and also kept a mistress, while Heinrich Himmler had children with both his wife and mistress.
Large amounts of looted gold, museum-quality artwork, and other valuable movable assets changed hands here in late April 1945. At this time most of the top Nazi military officers met here to launder their gold, money, looted jewelry from concentration camp victims, stolen artwork and other valuables, and to receive new identification papers and passports to allow them to flee to other countries after Germany's official capitulation. According to published interviews with Allied soldiers, SS-Standartenführer Waldemar Fegelein (Hermann's brother) was stationed at Fischhorn Castle in April 1945 along with other SS officers, and was believed to have received shipments from his brother in Berlin containing personal possessions of Eva Braun and some of the looted artwork of Hermann Göring. The Fegelein brothers' knowledge of the disposition of these shipments was another reason they were actively sought by the Allies at the end of the war.
Death
From January to April 1945, Fegelein and Martin Bormann controlled access to Hitler's office. After Fegelein's boss, Heinrich Himmler, tried to negotiate a backdoor surrender to the Allies via Count Bernadotte in April 1945, Fegelein left the Reich Chancellery bunker and was caught by SS-Obersturmbannführer Peter Högl in his Berlin apartment apparently preparing to flee to Sweden or Switzerland with cash and forged passports in civilian clothes with his Hungarian mistress. He was also, according to all accounts, highly intoxicated when arrested and brought back to the bunker.
At this point, historical accounts begin to differ radically. In The Last Days of Hitler, historian Hugh Trevor-Roper remarked:
The real causes and circumstances of the execution of Fegelein provide one of the few subjects in this book upon which final certainty seems unattainable.
Journalist James O'Donnell discovered in his interviews numerous claims and theories as to what happened next to Fegelein, many of which disagreed with each other, and some of which seemed preposterous (i.e., a claim that Hitler himself gunned Fegelein down). Many claimed he had been shot following a court-martial, and this theory predominated for many years. General Wilhelm Mohnke, who presided over the court-martial, told O'Donnell the following:

Hitler ordered me to set up a tribunal forthwith. I was to preside over it myself...I myself decided the accused man deserved trial by high-ranking officers. The panel consisted of four general officers - Generals Wilhelm Burgdorf, Hans Krebs, Johann Rattenhuber, and me...We did, at that moment, have every intention of holding a trial.

General Wulhelm Burgdorf
What really happened was that we set up the court-martial in a room next to my command post...We military judges took our seats at the table with the standard German Army Manual of Courts-Martial before us. No sooner were we seated than defendant Fegelein began acting up in such an outrageous manner that the trial could not even commence.
Roaring drunk, with wild, rolling eyes, Fegelein first brazenly challenged the competence of the court. He kept blubbering that he was responsible to Himmler and Himmler alone, not Hitler...He refused to defend himself. The man was in wretched shape - bawling, whining, vomiting, shaking like an aspen leaf. He took out his penis and began urinating on the floor...

I was now faced with an impossible situation. On the one hand, based on all available evidence, including his own earlier statements, this miserable excuse for an officer was guilty of flagrant desertion... Yet the German Army Manual states clearly that no German soldier can be tried unless he is clearly of sound mind and body, in a condition to hear the evidence against him. I looked up the passage again, to make sure, and consulted with my fellow judges...In my opinion and that of my fellow officers, Hermann Fegelein was in no condition to stand trial, or for that matter to even stand. I closed the proceedings...So I turned Fegelein over to General Rattenhuber and his security squad. I never saw the man again. (O'Donnell, The Bunker, 1978).
Many other people in the bunker argued that Mohnke was lying, that he had in fact had Fegelein killed, and only made the above statement to try and extricate himself from any guilt.

This situation was complicated by the fact that Mohnke was the only survivor of the supposed court martial—Hans Krebs and Wilhelm Burgdorf both committed suicide by May 2. Although Johann Rattenhuber survived, he was captured by the Red Army, kept in custody until the 1950s, and died shortly after being released (and before he could be interviewed about Fegelein).

However, as O'Donnell noted, nobody actually saw Fegelein's execution (or, if they did, they weren't talking). O'Donnell and many historians, with the evidence at hand, agreed with Mohnke, and have concluded that Fegelein was doomed because of a combination of Himmler's betrayal and suspicions that Fegelein's mistress was a spy. Fegelein, then, was killed without a proper trial on Hitler's orders, probably hanged by members of the SS in a nearby cellar. Furthermore, O'Donnell noted that Hitler held off on his marriage to Eva Braun until after he was satisfied Fegelein was dead—a means of ensuring that he would not have a "traitor" as a brother-in-law.
Eva Braun in 1942
Some survivors of the bunker say Eva Braun pleaded to Hitler to spare her new brother-in-law, Hermann, and some say she did not speak a word in his defense. There is agreement among bunker survivors that, when Fegelein was first arrested, Braun did inform Hitler that her sister was pregnant, and that this apparently led Hitler to initially consider releasing him without punishment. However, there is no agreement on whether she said anything once Hitler condemned him to death.
Aftermath
Both Fegelein's parents survived the war and claimed to have received messages (via a third party) that he was continuing resistance underground. His wife, who inherited some of her sister Eva's valuable jewelry (of questionable provenance), also survived the war and gave birth to a daughter (named Eva after her late aunt) whose true parentage is the subject of some speculation and who committed suicide in 1975.
The fate of the baby with which Fegelein's wife was pregnant at the time of their marriage is unknown. Some members of Hitler's entourage claimed she had an abortion with the aid of Theodore Morell, one of Hitler's doctors.
However, claims of his parents not withstanding, all evidence indicates that Fegelein was dead by April 29, 1945, and no bunker witnesses have ever suggested otherwise.

FINAL








Friday, August 5, 2016

DACHAU CONCENTRATION CAMP - SATELLITE CAMPS -, Part-2/2

DACHAU KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - 
Alphabetical Order         
D - E

DACHAU - The Entomological Institute

Why did the SS need an entomological institute?  Was it a Research Centre for Biological Warfare  as some Authors claim? Google: The Entomological Institute of the Waffen-SS: Evidence for offemsive biological warfare research in the third Reich

In January 1942, the Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler ordered during a telephone conversation with the Head of the Research Department of the SS, the 'Ahnenerbe'(Ancestral Heritage), Wolfram Sievers, the creation of a new Institute for the Study and Control of vermin insects like bugs, lice , fleas, mosquitoes, harmful to humans and others. On February 10, 1942 Dr Edmund May took over the position as director of the Entomological Institute. The then  unknown scientist was neither a  party member nor a  members of the SS, but a prominent and well known zoologist with wide studies in the natural sciences Mathematic, Physic, Chemistry, Botanic, Geology and Palaeontology.  In March 1942,Dr.  May habituated in Munich for natural philosophy and history of science.

To settle the decision to locate  the Entomological Institute in Dachau, was made in April 1942, on the one hand because of existing medical facilities in the camp  and secondly because Professor Carl Schilling, who worked in the concentration camp  on experiments with malaria mosquitoes on detainees.The Section SS- WVHA in Berlin hoped for a  close cooperation between the two scientists Schilling and May.

The Entomological Institute, were assigned a plot of land right next to the Dachau concentration camp the the former 'Alte Römer Strasse', today it is 'Würmmühle 4'. What was planned were two wooden barracks, in the larger one it was planned to have the Laboratories and offices and in the smaller one the accommodation for scientists. However, the construction of the barracks went ahead initially at snails pace, depressed because there were supply difficulties of building materials in the third year of the war. This resulted that one and a half years after Himmler's instructions, only pipes  for water and lines for electricity had been laid. The workers for the construction were provided by the concentration camp in the form of a 30-men prisoner work  detail (Arbeitskommando). The Entomological Institute took up its laboratory activities not until 1944. Until then, Dr. May''s office was provisionally housed at the Plantation at Dachau KZ..

Since March 1943 the Prehistory Professor,Dr. Rudolf Schütrumpf who had worked for the 'Ahnenerbe' since 1938, became the first secretary to Dr. Edmund May. Next to him were less skilled scientists, a total of eight assistants and some  'amateur biologists' were hired which was at that time the entire staff employed by the Institute, these people had been exempted from their SS- or/and police duties. Human experiments on prisoners of Dachau concentration camp were indeed planned by Sievers, but were not carried out.[For further study on 'Ahnenerbe' read:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahnenerbe]
In addition to the prisoners, who had built as a Baukommando the two barracks at Würmmühle, four women prisoners were semt to  the Institute, Else S. ,, Olga N., Martha K, and Ottelie A, they came on 11 September 1944 from the Ravensbrück concentration camp to Dachau. The four 'Jehovah Witnesses' were two days in Dachau locked in the bunker before they were taken to the nearby Institute. Here, the women were housed in barrack of the  research facilities in a single room. At the Institute they were used for cleaning and other tasks to keep the place tidy.[Their basic functions was that of Maids and Housekeepers,sic] They were allowed to wear civilian clothes, did not work on Sunday's and could move freely. Martha K. described that the women completed for the scientists also errands in the town of Dachau. The women prisoners appear to have been treated well by all the staff of the Institute. There was neither a leader nor command guards who supervised the women ..
The IBT Entomological Institute existed until the end of the war with an unchanged occupancy. The women prisoners were not evacuated to the main camp, as was customary,  but released at the Würmmühle by American troops.

The Würmmühle next to KZ Dachau and part of the SS=Complex

  The living quarters of the Institute was in 1945 demolished, while in the former research barracks became a home for German  refugees and survivors of the Dachau concentration camp were housed.until 1965, the second shack was torn down, on the site now stands  a residential property.
After the war, against Dr. Edmund Nay no investigation was conducted because of his affiliation with the 'Ahnenerbe' after. He already held at the end of 1945 lectures at the University of Munich and in 1951 as ordinary Professor of  philosophy at the Free University of  Berlin. Dr. Schütrumpf lived after the war in Cologne and in 1970 was appointed as 'aussenplanmässigen'  (unscheduled) Professor.

Professor Claus Karl Schilling had hardly any association with the Institute, however,in the course of the Dachau Trials following the liberation of the camp at the close of the war, Schilling was tried by an American tribunal, with an October 1945, an  affidavit from Schilling being presented in the proceedings.[Using humans as guinea pigs in his 'research' to find an anti-body or serum against malaria.sic]
The tribunal sentenced Schilling to death by hanging on 13 December 1945. His execution took place at Landsberg Prison in Landsberg am Lech on 28 May 1946. See:

       Professor Schilling on the gallows to be dropped to hang  at Landsberg am Lech

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm

APPENDIX
Up to today there is no evidence of offensive biological warfare research in Germany after the unsuccessful attempts of German biosabotage in WWI. It is a pitty that the misleading heading of Reinhardt ‘s article similar to other disinformation campaigns are favored by some media’s apparent craving for a breaking story that often supersedes thorough investigation.sic



DACHAU (POLLNHOF)

About the sub-camp on the Estate of the Pollnhof in Dachau only fragmented statements are made today. Just the Investigation , in the 1970s by the Central Office in Ludwigsburg, give an approximate insight into the activities on the Pollnhof. The Estate belonged to one of the agricultural holdings within the immediate environment of Dachau concentration camp, which the SS owned, managed and administered. Further examples are the plantation acreages with the Kräutergarten  (herb garden) or the Liebhof, a somewhat larger Estate in Dachau. On the Pollnhof (today SteinerNo.:+ 16) worked prisoners from the KZ,  in various commandos at agricultural work. Stanislaw F. was according to his own statement already there in 1942 with approximately 50 other inmates, who would start at at six in the morning, accompanied by SS guards and walked the 1,5 Kilometre distance to the Pollnhof Estate. Once thee, the prisoners worked, either jointly or separately in small groups at agricultural activities. In the evining they would march back to the camp, in time for the evening Roll Call. Sundays was not a workday.

Manor House (Sclösschen) Pollnhof Steiner 16, as it is today, now in private hands, still selling agriculture products in a minor way, I went there few times in  the 1950's, to buy vegetables, but no other properties exist then. It did not look like this at all!, this was a dirt road before you had to cross the Pplln-Bach (Creek), which eventually emerged via underground culvert at the western entrance of Camp Dachau
The manor was led by a Sergeant, by the  name of Reise. He was also responsible for the distribution of work to be done and divided the prisoners into several teams.. A detachment commander did not exist on the Pollnhof but ten SS men who guarded the prisoners in the work was always present. The composition of the guards changed daily. While there were no killings of prisoners on the Pollnhof are known, but wines reports indicate of server mistreatments. If a prisoner was ought stealing a carrot or a potato on the field, he was immediately beaten on the spot and subsequently taken off the the working Kommando. Returning to the camp the delinquent would receive an additional beating (Prügelstrafe).
For a period of about four weeks from March 1945, alongside the daily coming and returning inmate commando from the camp, there was a permanent satellite camp on the estate for a limited period. Josef S. remembers that the six other Polish POW s and a Kapo was housed in a small room next to the horse stables. The approximate  opening date is given as  March 1 145, there was a good reason for this change. The prisoners were quartered on the Pollnhof because of the prevailing Typhoid fever epidemic in the Stammlager (Nain Camp). During this time, the eight prisoners took care exclusively of the horses on the farm. After four weeks, these prisoners continued to work on the farm, but they were then as the remaining commando again housed in the concentration camp.
About the fate of work commando Pollnhof survivors report that they marched out of the camp until 25 April 1945 to the farm. The inmate file of the  Polish protective custody prisoner Stanislaus Kiszka contains the the entry 'freed Pollnhof' (befreit Pollnhof). This is the only indication that, even after the 25th April 1945, there  were one or maybe several prisoners still working on the estate.
The old manor house still stands but is now a residential building surrounded by a densely built apartment area.

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm


DACAHU  (PRÄZIFIX)

Ludwig Nachtmann founded in  1933 the Schraubenfabrik (Srew Factory) Präzifix GmbH(Ltd) in the Münchner Straße at Dachau. Since the war began they specialized particularly in special screws for aircraft engines. In 1940 Gustav Adolf Heyer from  Berlin took over the company. and moved the production in the following year to the new factory in the Johann Ziegler Street. (Plant 1) The Präzifix GmbH was an important supplier to the  Messerscmitt-Werke and the Bavarian Motoren Werke (BMW), and had already received in 1941 permission to build a factory on thearea of Flosslände, which was on the SS Exercise and Training Camp. The then existing ammunition bunkers were connected a single-storey barrack in which apart from some civilian  labourers, with the intention  to employ exclusively inmates of he Dachau KZ. Before the sub-camp was built in 1940 twelve prisoners worked for the Präzifix GmbH (Ltd) in the Münchner Straße. However, these prisoners returned every night back into the KZ-Lager. At the Flosslände facilities, there worked since the fall of 1943 a total of 37 prisoners, among them Edgar Kupfer,who was employed as a clerk in the the following three years in the material store office. He kept a secret diary, which has been preserved and is the detailed description of the operations of the commando Präzifix. This narrative is partly based on his writings.

  Invoice by "Präzifix" from April 1943. The company paid 40.15 Reichs Mark to the German Research Institute for nutrition and food. This Institute was Par of the so called Herb Garden of KZ Dachau.
WORKING CONDITIONS
At first, the prisoners still marched from Dachau KZ the 1.5 Kilometre distance to the factory building II (Werk II). After a typhus epidemic in the main camp (Stammlager) beginning in April 1943 wooden barracks were built on the factory premises and a permanent sub-camp was established. Edgar Kupfer wrote in his diary on 7 February 1943 he had for the first time on this date, slept with about 130 other prisoners in the barracks on the factory premises. Further utility barracks were erected., and quickly the the sub-camp was enlarged and  accommodated up to 400 prisoners. In addition, a kitchen block with an annex as a food magazine, a  clothing store room and a residence meeting barrack,(Aufenthaltsbaracke) was added. The camp was fenced with an electric barbed wire fence and surrounded by six occupied with post guard towers. At the watchtowers searchlights were mounted that lit the camp at night.
  At the Flosslände[which was the place of Präzifix,sic] there were insufficient sanitation provisions, which is why the prisoners as from May 1943, under the supervision of the SS took them  on Sunday's to  the main camp (Stammlager) were they made to bathe and had their clothing and undergarments washed. Once a week there was a prisoner-doctor from the KZ to check the health condition of those inmates at camp Präzifix.
The division of labour and supervision was carried out by Dr. Heyer and five to ten civilian employees of the company. Heyer came only irregularly into the Werk II, yet constantly present were the civilian manager Oberkirchner who was responsible for the production and general operation,another three were the  supervisor of quality control Sieifert and Goldap as well as a master electrician. The behaviour of the civilian supervisors towards the detainees was split. Some tried to make the life of the prisoners easier, but others participated in the harassment(Schikanen).
  Among the prisoners were skilled workers like turners and  fitters (Dreher und Sclosser), but also unskilled workers from all parts Europe, the most represented were prisoners from Poland, Czechoslovakia  and Yugoslavia. They worked in twelve-hour day and night shifts, in which prisoners on lathes, milling and grinding machines as well as metal stamping  were engaged in the manufacture of aircraft parts. Most of the daily  civilian workers left the  Flosslände factory as of 1943 while they were either drafted into military service or put to  work I in the works at Johann-Zieglerstrasse. At that time, the inmates took over the Administration of  Werk II by day and night by Kapos, these were in charge of respective shifts. and included Walter Ohldorfer, Christian Weber, Josef Starka, Karl Weber and August Madriz. The monitoring teams,[the guards.sic] with their especially older Air Force members, frequently changed, only the Detachment Commander was constantly present, without any change.. He would take the morning and evening roll call and signed off the number of prisoners present [or missing,sic]. Several Kommandoführer, who were NCO's, except two officers who's.  names are known, they are: SS Oberschadfährer Ernst Angerer ((until end 1943), Unterscharführer Josef Heller, Obersturmführer Arno Lippmann (until August 1844) and Hauptsturmführer John Berndt, The ten to twelve SS guards were living in a barrack outside the camp's fence.

LIVING CONDITIONS
The food in the camp was relatively good, in any case better than in the main camp Dachau. Overseeing the food preparation and the necessary supplies was the responsibility of the prisoner Karl Weller, who oversaw the cooking with four other prisoners. The former prisoner August J. reported that many functionary prisoners in Dachau were trying to accommodate their friends in the camp Präzifix because it was known to be a better IBT. Even J. had come in this roundabout way into the Präzifix sub-camp.
A peculiarity within this camp was the culture barrack (Kultur Baracke) in which the prisoners could be in their free time. On Sundays and public holidays they would here organize theatre events. The various nationalities performed skits and folk dances, and a band played for the prisoners. Director Heyer provided the musical instruments and and took part with his wife in these events. In addition, there was a chorus of about 14 Polish prisoners and a football team that on Sundays participated to play against other teams from the main camp.

HANGINGS
In June 1944, Dr. Oskar Eifler, a convinced Nazi, took over the management of Präzifix GmbH. Director Heyer was possibly in conflict with the Gestapo because of favouring inmates as being too lenient towards them, and was transferred early in 1945 to the Eastern Front. ]He soon paid a price for being humane, his life sic] With Eiflers entry into the factory conditions of the prisoners worsened. As three Russian prisoners had toothpaste, soap and pair of shoes stolen, Hauptsturmführer Berndt mistreated the  detainees badly  and put them on the next day for questioning back into the main camp. Only one returned to the sub-camp to be hanged there in front of assembled prisoners. The other two prisoners were hanged as well, one in Mauthausen and other at Nünchen-Allach. [Statement: Walter Eichler 30.11.1946 in:DaA/I, Kupfer-Koberwitz, Dachauer Diary page 372] still the question remains open 'who reported them?' SS-guards did not patrol inside the camp,sic.
The total number of cases of ill-treatment and executions in the camp are well known. At the end  of May it came to an altercation during the construction of a new transformer station, the trouble started among the inmates of the detachment which the team leader reported back to the Dachau KZ, with the result that the  prisoners, two Russians and a Pole were hanged on December 17, 1944 charged with sabotage. To deter the commandos at Präzifix, they had had to watch the hangings.
An air raid in late October 1944,on  a nearby Munition Depot was hit. The explosion destroyed part of the factory  on the Flösslände, 13 prisoners were wounded and some dead had to be taken back to the Main Camp for treatment and disposal of the deceased. Once the damage had been fixed to the barracks, production in Werk II resumed again.

FINAL DAYS
The IBT Präzifix was dissolved on 26 April 1945 and the prisoners returned to the main camp. About half of the inmates had to join in the evacuation march. This group stayed together until the liberation by the Americans near the village of Wolfratshausen.
Director Gustaf Adolf Heyer died in the last days of the war in the front line His superintendent Dr. Otto Eifler was indicted in 1947 Dachau processes, but acquitted. During an investigation by the Munich II Public Prosecutor on Oskar Eifler's participation of murder at the sub camp, was in 1977 suspended and not perused.
The screw factory Präzifix GmbH was able to re-commence in 1945 its production with civil workforce again. Until 1951 they were manufacturing among other items. kitchen scales  and made thread rollers (Gewindewalzen). The entire enter prize was dissolved after the sale to a Munich-based company.

Author German Text: Sabine Schahm


EBERSBERG

In March 1945, an inmate of the Dachau concentration camp was there and used to oversee the work performance (Arbeitsleitung) for the mayor of Ebersberg. Whether the prisoner remained there overnight or returned daily to Dachau is unknown.
-Author German Text: Christph Bachmann

ECHING-NEUFAHRN

Yet in the last few weeks before the war ended, a sub-camp of the Dachau KZ was  established in an area near Eching,of the Freising district with about 20 Kilometre distance east of Dachau. It was located on a flat terrain at the Dietersheimer  Strasse between Dietersheim and Neufahrn near the Neufahrner sports field. Two to five wooden barracks including utility barracks such as the kitchen, laundry and infirmary were hiding there in a large gravel pit. The camp was  surrounded with a simple wire fence and had no watchtowers, only searchlights illuminated at night the terrain .
  On 10 April 1945 500 prisoners were brought by train from Dachau to Eching/Neufahrn. They should under the regime of the SS and the Todt Organization, to build on the  south-western side of the camp on the 'Garching Heath' in about two Kilometre distance, a runway for air crafts. They had to first in in an east-west direction, remove the humus layer on a length of 300 Metres and a width of 43 Metre  and level by bulldozing the pitch. North and south of the runway they dug deep foxholes for protection against air attacks. The area was since 1908 the property of the 'Bavarian Botanical Company of Munich'. These leased the entire 'Garching Heath' on July 1, 1936, to the airbase commander. already operating as an emergency landing strip (Notlandung) nearby. In November 1944 the first plans of the air force were implemented to expand the airfield and to use it as a backup runway.

War memorial in front of town hall

The prisoners did belong to different categories of inmates and nationalities. There were Poles, the Czech-Slovaks, Yugoslavs, Russians, Ukrainians, Italians, French and Germans under them. Civilian workers initiated the construction activities. The guards were made up of members of the air force, some members of the SS and older men of the Organisation Todt. Camp Commandant was a native of Karlsruhe, a big grown SS members whose name and rank is unknown, as witnesses were unable to remember.
 When asked about abuse, one prisoner reported of the  standard flogging with 25 strokes by the cane, [all camps had a manual, how to treat inmates, which was originally written by Theodor Eicke when Dachau was first established, but not necessary adhered to,sic] another recalled that, ' if an inmate was not working or interrupted what he was doing, to rest, because it was too heavy for him, the punishment being carried out by the SS men, but sometimes there were also overseer that had been advanced from our own prisoner ranks who did the thrashing'. A prison orderly who supervised the infirmary with a Polish assistant, reported that one day two prisoners who were on an outside work assignment, returned with serious injuries to the infirmary because they had been beaten up by the overseers with strokes by the cane. The witnesses questioned about deaths and executions, but could not remember that any ever took place.
 Two weeks after the establishment of the sub camp, construction work ceased on 24 April 1945. The SS guards had left the camp, only men of the Todt Organisation and Volkssturm members remained. Then some prisoners took the opportunity to flee.

Author German Text: Rudol Goerge


Acknowledgements:/Sources:
Wikipedia,
Der Ort des Terrors, Vol.:2-page 309
Verlag C.H.BeckMünchen 2005
Translated from German by:
Herbert Stolpmann von Waldeck
Editing/Design:
<d_stolpmann@hotmail.com>

       


                                                                                                   Continued