Wednesday, January 11, 2017

DACHAU KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 13 Alphabetical Order M



                     DACHAU KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 13

                                                   Alphabetical Order




The company L.Ehrengut was a sawmill with carpentry, located in Thalkirchenstrasse 270 in Munich. Between 7 April 1942 and 11 September 1942 10 prisoners of the KZ-Dachau were used here. Half of the detachment consisted of German prisoners. Two Czech and three Polish prisoners held as Custody Prisoners were added to the sub-camp Ehrengut.
The former prisoner Bodeslaw M. recalls that the commando Ehrengut was initially taken  daily from Dachau by truck to work in Munich and only a few months later, a permanent sub-camp was established on the company premises. This means that as early as April 1942, a detainee work team was busy there. All prisoners were employed as machine-operators in the sawmill in the production of military barracks components.

 The prisoners were housed in a barrack on the factory grounds. The food for the prisoners was delivered from the KZ-Dachau and prepared at Ehrengut. On the Sunday off work, prisoners were able to prepare additional food for themselves. Hermann Glinz, the German Schutzhaftling (Custody Detainee), was the Kapo of the sub-camp.
Commander of the sub-camp Ehrengut was SS-UbterscharführerTheodor Stutz-Zenner. The SS security team consisted of five SS members, who came from Romania and Bulgaria. They lived with the prisoners in the same barrack, but in separate rooms, while the commandant was quartered in the Residential house. Ill-treatment and inmate killings are not known.
In the middle of 1942, an inmate fled and the sub-camp Ehrengut was dissolved.
In the framework of the Dachau trial, Theodor Stutz-Zenner was sentenced to life imprisonment for his crimes in various Dachau's sub-camps in 1947.

Author German Text; Sabine Schalm

At the headquarters of the Secret State Police in Munich, which  housed in the Wittelsbacher Palace at the  Briennerstrasse 50, it was then that in June 1942 the KZ-prisoner Josef Eberl was employed as a caretaker. From 1943 to April, 1945, the work between Eberl and an  additional prisoner Xaver Schroll was divided while living there. Both were kept in prison cells in the basement. Apart from them, other prisoners from Dachau were employed as carpenters, electricians, or painters in the Wittelsbach Palace. There are no further details about these first KZ-prisoners at the Briennerstrasse.
 As a sub-camp proper, 'Munich-Gestapo' for the first time ten Dachau prisoners were taken there, who were transferred to the Briennerstrasse on the 13 June 1944. By April 1945 the sub-camp expanded to 50 prisoners and came from the German Reich, Italy, Yugoslavia, the Netherlands, Poland and Russia. The sub-camp was accommodated within the Wittelsbach Palace in a large hall with multi-storey bunk beds, the hall (Saal) was locked at night. In the cellar there was a kitchen and a bathroom, which were used by the prisoners. The catering was provided by the KZ-Dachau, the preparation had to be taken over by the prisoners themselves. The Gestapo Department was surrounded by a brick wall and fenced in with  barbed wire, controlled day and night by guards.
                                             Munich Residenz, Königsbau (2014) The former Royal Palace was bombed beyond use and rebuilt    as it is now

 The commando was headed by Kapo Karl Frey, who would strive vigorously for the well-being of his fellow prisoners. The detainees carried out mainly repairs and erected an air raid shelter in the Wittelsbach domain. In part, they were used outside to remove bombs, to extinguish fires, or remove the dead out of the rubble after air raids. A former truck driver  employed by the Gestapo remembers that he picked up prisoners in the courtyard of the Wittelsbach Palace in the mornings, took them to their place of work, and delivered them back again to the Briennerstrasse in the evening. In 1945 smaller groups of prisoners were used for bomb disposals. Several Polish and Russian prisoners were killed in January 1945 during the detonation of a duds, that in fact were fitted with time delays. From this sub-camp further detainees were killed during bomb clearings, but  their losses were replaced   with other prisoners from Dachau.

On 7 January 1945 seven prisoners were hanged in the park of the Wittelsbach Palace because of looting. An inmate had to act as a hangman and the remaining prisoners had to watch the hanging. Further executions and shooting of prisoners on the grounds of food theft or unauthorized absence from the workplace are known; misstatements by the SS security teams were the order of the day. [The looting properly took place after an air raid, warning signs were erected, that the Police would shoot at anyone found at bombed-out premises. this was nothing newsic]

The sub-camp Munich-Gestapo was under the command of Adolf Höfer. The guard detachment were composed of foreign SS members, who guarded the prisoners inside and outside the Wittelsbach Palace. Their treatment of detainees was brutal.

 On 25 April 1945 the sub-camp Munich-Gestapo was dissolved, the prisoners were returned to KZ-Dachau on foot. At the Landgericht (District Court) Munich, there were two proceedings dealing with the operations at the sub-camp. During  1963/64 it was claimed that the former prisoners Josef Eberl and Xaver Schroll abused one  of a Gestapo prisoners. The case was closed as no evidence could be provided. In the same way, in the 1976 proceedings against Adolf Höfer, (the former commandant) and other former members of the Gestapo were discontinued for lack of evidence for alleged killings.

Today there is a new building at Briennerstrasse 50, which houses the Volkstheater in addition to the Law Chancery of the, and is not identical with the location of the Wittelsbach Palace. The former address Briennerstrasse 50 is today's house number 20. The Wittelsbach Palace was abgerissen  (torn down) in 1964, where the Landesbank (State Bank) erected a new complex,  on its facade on which a memorial plague is placed, points to the former Gestapo's service building.

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm 


In the Höchlstrasse in the center of Munich, from October to December 1944, a prisoner commando was placed in a private villa. In the files this sub-camp was run under SS-Standort-Verwaltung (Local Administration)) Höchlstrasse. According to a former prisoner Conrad Klug, it consisted of 18 craftsmen, who had to do clean ups after air attacks on Munich.
 The commando consisted of political prisoners of different nationalities and members of the faith community of Jejovas' Witnesses. Details on the accommodation, meals and treatment of the prisoners, as well as details of SS staff, are not known. 

Lists of transfers from KZ-Dachau for the months of October and November 1944, indicates that 20 prisoners were gradually assigned to the sub-camp Höchlstrasse, wile from the  main camp, only five prisoners returned during the existence of this camp. It remains unclear whether sub-camp survivors have died and whether they have been  substituted from the main camp or just increased the strength of the commando. Conrad Klug reported that the working detail was dissolved in December 1944, and that part of the prisoners were transferred to the sub-camp Garmisch. According to the International Search Service in Arolsen, the sub-camp Höchlstrasse was last mentioned on 28 December 1944.
In 1973, the Central Office of the District Court Administration in Ludwigsburg initiated investigations into the activities at the  Höchlstrasse camp. Since no violent crimes or killings could be proved, the procedure was terminated in 1974.

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm


 Between the 5th February 1945 and 21st April 1945 consisted the sub-camp 'catastrophic deployment' in Munich. It is not possible to establish the exact locality  of this sub-camp. however, up to 85 prisoners were placed in a cellar of a bombed-out house and used to defuse dud bombs after air raids on the city area. The so called camp consisted of prisoners of different nationalities, mainly Russians, Poles and Czechoslovaks. To keep control and order were the German Custody Prisoners (Schtzhäftlinge) Werner Ascher and Otto Höringer as Kapo and assistant kapo. The prisoners slept in multiple tiered  beds and were guarded by ten SS members and a commanding officer. The work orders for the commando would be conveyed to the commandant personally by Karl Fiehle, the Bürgermeiter (mayor) of Munich at that timer.
The high mortality rate of the detainees is known from other operating teams, defusing duds in Munich, because they were sent to their mission without specialist training and adequate safety precautions,
On April 20, 1945, 28 prisoners and one day later further eleven prisoners from the sub-camp were brought back to the KZ-Dachau and the camp was dissolved
In 1973, the Central Office of the District Court in Ludwigsburg initiated a procedural inquiry, which was discontinued in 1976 in the absence of any clear indications.

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm


 In the spring of 1942 the SS 'Lebensborn' consortium acquired from the Reichsvereinigung (State Incorporation) of Jewish property in Germany the former Jewish Old Peoples Residence at Mathildenstrasse 8-9 in Munich. Here, services of the 'Lebensborn'-Administration were established. On June 15, 1942, there was a sub-camp of the KZ-Dachau domiciled, which consisted of 20 prisoners, mostly Polish, Austrians, Czechs and Germans. In September 1942, the commando increased to 40 prisoners. They were housed in a dwelling with the window panes painted over. An SS detachment guarded the building.

]First, the prisoners rebuilt the bomb-damaged building of Mathildenstrasse. Some of the prisoners also worked at different places in the city on other construction sites. Thus a survivor reported that he had been deployed with a small commando in the Hermann-Schmid-Strasse during repair work. In the number 5 estate there was a former Jewish hospital, which Lebensborn had also acquired in 1942 and rebuilt into office departments.. But the prisoners were also used for reconstruction and bunker building work for the private apartment of the Munich Lebensborn, SS leader Max Stollmann. From Monday to Saturday they worked from six o'clock in the morning to seven o'clock in the evening, on Sundays until noon.

 The SS staff consisted of a commanding officer and five SS guards. The first commander was an SS man named Bederlein, his successor was Noll. The last commanding officer, SS Unterscharführer, was the most brutal in relation with the prisoners, who was apparently ordered to go to Munich no later than the autumn of 1943. The head of the Lebensborn, Max Schollmann, gave instructions on the work-assignments to the Commando-Führer and was in return informed about all events in the sub-camp. Contacts between prisoners and employees of the Lebensborn were strictly forbidden. Hans Rohr, the custodian prisoner, was a Kapo. He was described as brutal and cruel by survivors. Piotr K., a former prisoner, reported that Hans Rohr had once pushed him out of a window from the first floor and had beaten him several times. The Red Spain Fighter, Hermann Rathering, since June1943 Kapo did not strike his fellow prisoners. Abuse by SS members for minor offenses were the order of the day. Prisoners weakened as a result of beatings  or being sick were transferred back to the Stammlager Dachau and replaced by new workers.
Killings of prisoners  are are not known to have taken place at the sub-camp 'Lebensborn'.

 After the destruction of the service buildings during air raids between 11 and 13 July 1944, the Enterprise 'Lebensborn' was relocated to Steinhöring in the following weeks. The prisoners also went to Steinhöring and the sub-camp existed there under the designation 'RFSS Personal Staff Office' until shortly before the end of the war.A number of survivors of the sub-camp 'Lebensborn' were interviewed in an investigation by the Central Office in Ludwigsburg between 1973 and 1975. The case is closed. Today, the eye clinic of the university clinic is located in Mathildenstrasse in the Central Bu sines District of Munich. 

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm

Der Ort des Terrors, Pages 400-

Vol 2 C.H.Beck, München 2005
Translated from German by:
Herbert Stolpmann von Waldeck                                                          Continued under Part 14



Monday, December 26, 2016

DACHAU KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 12 Alphabetical Order M


DACHAU KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 12 Alphabetical Order M



                        DACHAU KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 12
                                                   Alphabetical Order




At Tegernsee Landsdstrasse 61 in Munich, since 1927, the headquarters of the "Aktiengesellschaft Anilun Fabriktion" have been located, for short it was called 'Agfa Kamerawerkre'. The company was founded in Berlun in 1867, taken over by Bayer AG, Leverkusen in 1927, and integrated into the IG Farben, which was associated with Rayer AG. Since 1928, only laboratory instruments have been produced in the Munich camera factory. Over the past few years, the Munich management and research departments have been there it's operation. In November 2004 assets of the company were sold to German and American investors. In 2005, the company announced its insolvency.



                                         1867 - 1904: The Early Years

Both Agfa and Gevaert were established in the nineteenth century. Business boomed and soon the original premises became too small.

 During the second world war, the optical and precision mechanical production of the camera works was converted to  a war economy and produced ignition timing devices for bombs, artillery ammunition and V-1 and V-2 rockets; they used every opportunity to sabotage the production. In January 1945, citing the lack of food, the prisoners conducted a strike, an unheard-of action in a concentration camp. As a result in change of production, the Agfa camera factory was considered a war-time operation and since 1942 more than 800 foreign forced laborers had been working there as a  a prisoner commando from KZ-Dachau. On 13 September 1944, 500 women from the KZ-Ravensbrück were brought to Munich to work. At the end of October 1944, the subcamp changed again, but the number of prisoners remained around 500 inmates. Those kept mainly in this subcamp came from Poland, Holland as well as women from the Ukraine and France.

                           Women prisoners from Ravensbrück that came to Munich

 Their plight in Ravensbrück
About five hundred prisoners from Eastern and Southeastern Europe, mainly Poland, arrived from Ravensbrück concentration camp on 13 September 1944. Little is known about the Polish women except that many of them were taken as slave labor in reprisal for the 1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Ludwig Eiber mentions a forty-year old Polish women who died on 7 October 1944.] In December 1944, after a Christmas party, two of these prisoners escaped, dressed as Josef and Maria in some borrowed clothing. According to an unconfirmed account of Leni Leuvenberg, twenty Polish women were killed during a bombing on 25 February 1945.
In October 1944, 250 Polish prisoners were sent back to Ravensbrück, in exchange for 193 Dutch women, ten women from other West European countries and fifty women from Eastern and Southeastern Europe. Among the latter were twenty-one Slovenian political prisoners, mostly (communist) Yugoslav Partisans. The Dutch women arrived on October 15, 1944 from Ravensbrück where they had arrived in September from the Dutch concentration camp Vught. Most had been active in the resistance and had formed bonds already in Vught. They were a cohesive, supportive group; they marched singing into the cattle cars in Vught and walked singing into Ravensbrück concentration camp.
Out of the 193 Dutch women, only two died just before the war's end. In comparison, a third of the Dutch women that stayed behind in Ravensbrück did not survive.
The accommodation of the women was a three-storeyed Wiohnhaus (dwelling), which was not yet completed, located in today's Weissenseestrasse 7-15 in Munich. A survivor of this KZ-sub camp recalled that the house was also home to civilian workers. Apart from the standard two-storey beds, there were only a few wooden tables and stools in the apartments. On the ground floor was a Revier (Hospital) for sick inmates. Next to the house there was a barrack, where the kitchen and the dining room were installed. The camp was fenced-in with barbed wire and four watchtowers.
 Commander of subcamp's Agfa camera works was SS Untersturmführer Kurt Konrad Stirnweis. In February 1945, the Latvian Alexander Djerin came to the Weissenseestrasse as deputy commandant. His predecessor is not known by name. On the one hand, the commanders are portrayed as being  strict and dutifully, on the other hand, several prisoners wrote thanksgiving letters to Kurt Konrad Stirnweis after the war, because he had worked for the women for better conditions. In addition to the two commanding officers, there were ten SS-female Aufseherinnen (Warden) and one Ober-Aufseherin  as the superior over her team and the women in the subcamp.
Above all, an older warden of them with the name Richter beat the women frequently. Yet the entire SS guards were lodged with the prisoners in the sane dwelling-house.

 The hygienic conditions in the camp were inadequate, only once a week the women received warm water. In the prisoners' revier (hospital) the women were able to recover temporarily when the prison doctor Ella Lingens issued a bed card and they did not have to go to work. But there were also serious diseases such as stomach-typhus, scarlet fever, tuberculosis, and most important scabies. The women, who fell ill for a longer period, were transferred back to the KZ-Dachau.
[ Ella Lingens was a doctor who was in Auschwitz as a political prisoner and spent several months in the Agfa-Commando, she died November 2002 in Vienna.sic].

 Most of the women suffered under the deficient food and the cold. They had no coats in the winter, only a few blankets and almost no fire wood. They were particularly cold because the windows of the dwelling-house were destroyed after air raids, and they were no longer protected from wind and cold. Frequently, the sleeping mattresses were covered with snow. Because of the lack of food, the thieving from the potato cellar in the basement of the Wohnhaus became a habit and  was due to the lack of food. The portions became even less after X-mass 1944 and condition became worse on a daily basis ever since, so that the Dutch women protested against the lack of food.They stopped the assembly line in Agfawek and refused to work. The commandant was very angry, had the names of the strikers listed,and wrote a report to Berlin. As a 'ringleader' the Dutch Johanna Maria Vaders was suspended and in January 11945 sentenced for seven weeks in the Dachau bunker.

In January, 1945 the 14-mile (23 km) road from the main camp in Dachau had become impassable as a result of the Allied bombings. The meals now became the responsibility of the Agfa management. The soup deteriorated by the day, and few women were spared digestive problems and complications from undernourishment. Disease was rampant: there were outbreaks of typhoid fever, scarlet fever and tuberculosis. Conditions at the main camp were no better; as the war drew to a close, Dachau became increasingly overcrowded with prisoners evacuated from other concentration camps. Consequently, transfer from the Agfa sub camp to the to the main camp's dispensary was close to a death sentence.
When the factory took over the distribution of the soup and started watering it down, while at the same time trying to raise the production quotas, the Dutch women spontaneously crossed their arms and stopped their work] The other women joined the protest. Strikes were unheard of in the concentration camps, so this would lead to severe punishments. In the end the women made their point that they just could not work under the conditions of a starvation diet and constant bombing raids. The chief Gestapo agent Willy Bach came down from the headquarters in Dachau and tried to find the instigators, but no one came forward. In the end, Mary Vaders, who had arrived from Ravensbrück on October 15, 1944, was selected at random and incarcerated in the Dachau bunker cell for seven weeks of solitary confinement. She came back damaged but unbroken. The remaining Dutch and and other women were punished with hours standing in formation in the court yard.

The sub camp had two Polish Kapos and one camp-Elderly. Camp-Elderly was initially the Dutch Winni De Winter and later a young Dutchwoman. For the working session the women were taken by their SS-guards on foot to the Agfa camera factory in the Tegernseer Landstrasse about 20 minutes on foot. Civilian workers assigned to  them had to monitor the women during work hours, [mainly to check for sabotages,sic] . The prison women were employed in the production of aircraft parts for the Luftwaffe. Kazimiera St. had to produce capsules and rinse them with a corrosive liquid. Most women worked at least twelve hours, if they did not reach the given standard even longer.

 There was no abuse of  prisoners in the camera factory. As an  armaments company it was often a target of air raids, while the Germans' fellow members of the Luftwaffe stayed in the security of shelters, the prisoners were locked up in the factory halls. They could not protect themselves from collapsing wood or sheet metal parts and bursting window panes. Many of them were injured in air raids in the Camera plant. Although some of them did stay in the basement of the factory,  They also used their stay in the basement of the factory during the bombing to urinate into the oil and thus make the machines break down. [It was not feasible to provide shelters for KZ inmates or for that matter for  POW's either.sic]

 An Ukrainian woman tried to flee once, but was quickly caught again. Before she was transferred to the Stammlager (Main Camp) Dachau after a few days, she was held as a punishment without food, right beside the food distribution. Then a young Russian girl broke out of the camp, but returned after a few days, because she could find nothing edible and no support in keeping her hidden.
On 27 April 1945 the camp Agfa camera works was evacuated. Commander-in-chief, with approximately 500 women and  his deputy Djerin and ten SS-female wardens led them in a  southerly direction. In Wolfratshausen the women refused to carry on, and sought shelter in a barn. On the following night, the guards fled, and the next morning, May 1, 1945, the women were liberated by American troops.

 As the war drew to a close and American TROOPSl began to encircle the region, production at the factory halted on 23 April 1945. The Allied bombings and the advance of the Allied forces had cut off the supplies of raw material and distribution of the products. The camp commander was ordered to evacuate the prisoners and begin their death march in a southerly direction The women were given a small sausage and a piece of bread for the journey, with their standard bowl of soup for their previous evening meal. Against his SS-superiors' orders, Stirnweis halted the march on 28 April just outside the town of Wolfratshausen and further persuaded a farmer named Walser to shelter the five hundred remaining prisoners in his hayloft. Despite specific orders to the contrary, he did not resume the march, but let the women shelter in place until the American troops drew closer.
 On 1 May 1945 Stirnweis surrendered to the 12th Infantry Regiment of the 4th Infantry Division of the US Army and asked for protection of the prisoners. After about a week on the farmFöhrenwald. This was the largest and longest-lived resettlement camp in post-war Europe. From Föhrenwald, the women were repatriated by the Red Cross.
Trial of the camp commander 
Initially, and based on cursory evidence, Stirnweis was accused of participating in cruelties and criminal usage of prisoners of war and civilians and sentenced to two years of labor after the war. However, the testimony of many of the women revealed no evidence of atrocities committed at the work detail at Agfa Camera works. According to former prisoners' testimony, sub-camp commander Lieutenant Kurt Konrad Stirnweis was a reasonable man. His sentence was abrogated upon the testimony of his former charges.
His deputy, a 29-year-old Latvian named Alexander Djerin,was sentenced to six years imprisonment for his cruel treatment of the prisoners, commencing 9 May 1945. Although there was no suggestion in the trial records that Sergeant Djerin had mistreated the women, he was convicted of mistreatment of prisoners during his work at Dachau.

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm


In October 1940, Adolf  Hitler ordered to  use inmates of concentration camps and prisoners of all kinds to remove  Allied bombs, duds, and long-term detonating devices. Above all in the last two years of  the war, prisoners from the KZ-Dachau were used to retrieve duds or those having ignitions with long-term detonators installed.
In July 11944, a bomb search commando of 100 prisoners was used for this purpose and taken to the   the gymnasium of the Stielerschule in Munich on the  Bavaria-Ring / Stielerstrasse 6. The prisoners had been selected by the camp management in Dachau and had been dressed before their transport to Munich with new prisoner suits. On leaving  the prisoners were not aware of their task. They were told that it was a clearing - up commando, which was to be used for debris removal or damaged building safety

.                                           The Bavaria with the Ruhmeshalle, opened in 1850

 When they arrived at the Stielerschule, they were promised to be relieved of intensive punishment (Erleichterung), or even to be  released from their internment, but they were threatened with execution for theft, attempted escape or contact with the civilian population. Then they were taken to the Roman Road, a reporting office for bomb locations for a brief intensive instruction and divided into smaller six groupings. Then the prisoners divided themselves again into individual teams, and were driven by Feuerwerker (Disposal Experts)  of the Wehrmacht to their assignments in the urban area, to defuse bombs without knowing how.Yet an inmate remembers that he defused 246 bombs.

  Flying Fortresses of the 303rd bomber group (Hell’s Angels) drop a heavy load on industrial      targets in Germany.

Reports by the Luftschutzkommando Süd (South) show that a Feuerwerker of the Wehrmacht was in charge and was supported by an SS post to guard the prisoners. Sometimes members of the  police were employed as guards.

                                                    Dud bombs unearthed by Disposal Teams

 Hitler and Mussolini before one of the Honor Temples at Königsplat

Most detainees died while removing the detonators of the bombs or during the explosions of the duds, which detonated without the assistance of the Feuerwerker, as the detonator was set to a certain time limit had run out and explosion took place. Up to 15 prisoners were killed daily in their work. The KZ-Dachau replaced these casualty's always with new prisoners. Because of the high losses, the prisoners themselves gave this assignment the name 'Hinnelfahrtskommando'. How many inmates had to defuse bombs in this while staying in this sub camp between July 1944 and April 1945, and how many of them were killed can not be reconciled. That it was very grave to be classified for the bomb search commando, it  was well known as to the dangers among the prisoners in the Stammlager of Dachau


 Destroyed Siegestor 1945

 Because of the work outside fixed camp limits, the danger of escape was great. From an escape attempt of Hans Busche, who was kept in Protective Custody,  on 16 September 1944 a report by the  Schutzpolizei Section Ccommand South indicates that Busche could not be found even after an extensive search. His remaining whereabouts is unknown.

 There are no indications on the closure of the sub camp at the Stielerschule. It is, however, certain that, up to the end of the war, that the bomb disposal within the greater area of Munich was carried out by prison inmates from Dachau.
The investigations of the office of the Landesjutiz Administration in Ludwigsburg during the years 1973/74 remained
unsuccessful. In 1989, a commemorative plaque for the detainees of the Bombensuchkommando was installed at the Stielerschule.

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm 

Der Ort des Terrors, Pages 389-

Vol 2 C.H.Beck, München 2005
Translated from German by:
Herbert Stolpmann von Waldeck


Sunday, December 25, 2016

DACHAU KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 11 Alphabetical Order M



                      DACHAU KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 11

                                        Alphabetical Order, M


                      DACHAU KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 11
                                                   Alphabetical Order



  The SS Adjutantur , a main department of the Reichsführer SS [Himmler} (RFSS) Personal Staff, who himself had his central office in Berlin, had a branch in Munich, Karlstrasse 10, headed by SS-Haupotsturmführer Alfons Schnitzler. With the realization  of the increasing air raids of the Allies on the Bavarian state capital from 1944 onwards, the decision was made,that  the Munich services, whose building had taken a severe air attack on 25 April and sustained considerable fire damage, during a raid that endangered the 'capital of the movement' (Hauptstadt der Bewegung) and move the offices  to a safe place . The choice fell to Markt Schwaben located about 20 kilometers east of Munich in the district of Ebersberg. In 1939, the Markt Schwaben, located on the railway line Munich-Simbach with a branch station in the direction of Erding, had already to accommodate several state and party facilities since the beginning of the Second World War. By the end of the spring of 1944 the population of Markt Schwabens had increased to more than 3,400 inhabitants,  by accommodating various bombed-out armament factories from Munich, as well as by lodging the evacuees (Flüchtlinge, prisoners of war and forced laborers into barracks and shelyers(Behelsheime)

Presumably mid-summer 1944, the Munich branch of the SS adjudant took over a 2,500 square-meter area in about 250 meters north-east of the station on today's Finsingerstrasse.
There were already barracks on the site, in which prisoners of war had previously been lodged.

The first transport with prisoners from the KZ-Dachau arrived in Markt Schwaben on 2 September 1944. This type of  sub-camp belonged to the central construction unit of the Waffen-SS. It was their job to unload building material from railway wagons at the station and take them to the site. There, in addition to the already existing two barracks, further makeshift buildings should be erected, apparently, for the installation of the offices of the branch of the  SS Adjudantur from Munich.
.The number of prisoners employed by the SS-Arbeitskommando at Markt Schwaben amounted to 19 persons. The prisoners came from almost all European countries and belonged to different age groups. As a rule, the detainees were taken  truck in the morning and returned in the evening to Dachau. Occasionally, however, they stayed for several days on the site. In these cases, they were placed in one of the two existing barracks. Here there was a bunk for each prisoner, with a straw bag for a mattress, a head pillow, and a blanket with bed sheets,proper  bed linen and pillowcases. The food rations corresponded to those of the KZ-Dachau.

 The SS guard team consisted of two men. As accommodation they used one of the other two barracks. In this building, the commander Alfons Schnitler also had a room at his disposal when he was present. According to a prisoner, a non-electric, double-stranded barbed wire fence, completely encircled the terrain, and was merely accessible through an entrance at the railway side via a gate and was meant to oversee and supervise a right-angled area. In addition, the SS men had a watchtower at their disposal, which was arranged diametrically to the two barracks with their barred windows in the southern side of the camp. During the  the night, a lantern was set up between the two barracks to light up the grounds.

There were no chicanery or ill-treatment, nor beatings, let alone any deaths of prisoners  - according to the same statements by those affected and by the overwhelming eyewitness reports by Markt Schwabener citizens. With permission of the commander Schnitzler, some prisoners were able to work for a farmer nearby in exchange for food as payment and sleeping in his barn. Two of the three detainees were stationed for a few days to be painting the wooden block built dwelling of SS-Hauptsturmführer  Anton Hartmann, the head of the Schwaben SS equipment and clothing store, near the railway-station (today Postanger)

Markt Schwaben - Twownship

Although the population of the village was able to observe the work of the prisoners on the open-air site of the sub-camp on the outskirts of the hamlet, they nevertheless were unaware  as to the background of the perceived events. The fact that this was a case of prisoners in the service of the Munich Branch of the SS Adjudantur of the Personal Staff of Himmler hardly knew anyone.

On 23 April 1945 the sub-command Market Schwaben was dissolved and at that time seven prisoners were sent back to Dachau. The construction of the buildings planned on the site had not yet come to the point of completion. One week after the closure of the camp on 1 May 1945 US troops entered Markt Schwaben. In the summer of the same year, the two barracks were demolished near the railroad crossing to Finsing.

Author German Text: Bernhard Schäfer


In order to maintain or even increase the production of fighter aircraft, the "hunter staff" Jäger Stab) was created in March 1944, to which members of the armaments and aviation ministry as well as other industrial complexes belonged. The main goal was the creation of bombproof premises. To this end, the organization Todt (OT), which came under the responsibility of the Ministry of Defense, should build half-underground concrete bunkers of several hundred thousand square meters of production space.

Four of the six bunkers were started, only two were completed, yet only by two thirds each. One was at Mühldorf am Inn in Oberbayern, the other at Landsberg am Lech. The buildings received code names for secrecy and security reasons, the code 'Weingut I' was used for Müldorf. Construction projects were placed with the organization Todt, the actual work was carried out by the company Polensky & Zoller, who in turn hired additional  companies under contract. The construction company of the SS-Weinguts-Betriebs-GmbH, located in the nearby Monastery Zangberg  at Müldorf, was managed by Martin Weiss, the former commander of Dachau, as the special commissioner to the SS group of the SS-WVHA. Within the  SS-Weingut-Betriebs GmbH,  was in fact a conglomerate of 42 companies - including AEG, Siemens & Halske, Siemens & Schuckert, Telefunken and Carl Zeiss -who were all  involved in the construction of the planned manufacture of parts for the Messerschmitt 262 jet fighter aircraft. Shortly before the end of the war, in March 1945, SS Obergruppenführer Hans Kammler seems to have taken command of the project that previously was  undertaken by the OT, with that the OT had lost the construction authority to the SS-Commander Kammler, but the construction activity was already more or less at this time at a standstill.





Monastery Zangberg from Ampfing

For the building of the bunker an effective and simple new procedure was employed. First an underground "extraction tunnel", fitted with a single train track and a gated roof, was built along the entire length of the planned bunker. Next the foundations for the abutments, which were up to 17 m thick, were dug. The gravel extracted from the foundations was piled up between the foundations to support the arches while they were being built, essentially serving as formwork instead of traditional wooden scaffolding. As each arch was completed, the gravel beneath it was dug out and dumped through the gates of the extraction tunnel into waiting mine carts, which would then be taken away. When the tunnel had been completely uncovered it would be disassembled and backhoes would continue the excavation to a depth of 19.2 meters. Starting from the east, one arch after another was erected in this way. Eight floors were to be erected beneath the arches, but this was only begun with the first arch. By the end of April 1945 only seven of the projected twelve arches were completed. In the last months of the war it was no longer possible to obtain the necessary materials and workers in order to stay on schedule.

ustration showing part of the construction process. The gravel fill over which the arch has been formed (C) is dumped in the center of the arch by excavators (B), where it is poured into minecarts waiting in the extraction tunnel below (A). The dotted line above the arch indicates the projected thickness, which was never attained


                                The construction site as it was found by US forces in May 1945 

 A large part of the forced laborers who had been made available for the construction of the bunkers were Hungarian Jews. In the near vicinity of Mühldorf, from July 1944 on-wards, the camp was subordinated to the KZ-Dachau: two larger ones, with each holding between 2,000 and 3,000 prisoners, namely Mettenheim near Nühldorf and the forest camp at Ampfing, as well as smaller camps, one at Mittergars, and the other at Thalham in the municipality of Obertaufkirchen. Not a camp, but presumably a working crew, was the Konnando 'Weingut Zangberg' lodged in the Zangberg Monastery, with 60 prisoners, presumably these were kept separately for billing purposes - not part of  the OT superstructure management, but the SS itself was the employer, and run independently. . Metterheim I was set up in barracks of a former Luftwaffe Clothing Depot, while the forest camp V, IV - the peculiar Roman numbering method resurfaced from other forest camps near Mühldorf, which were not part of the KZ-system. In the so-called Srammlager (Main Camp) the Finn- and Nissen Huts were used by the organization Todt who had this type of building  method also used in the Soviet Union. Unfortunately, those in use had proved to be inadequate, and were re-built according to designs of the OT-Erdhütten,(Earth-nuts) with only the tent-like roof above ground. Concrete details about the construction of Camps Mittergars and Thalham are not available.

Camp forced laborers inside barracks soon after
                  the liberation of Kaufering IV, part of a network of
                  Dachau subcamps. Landsberg-Kaufering, Germany, 1945.
Inside OT-built Earth Huts - at Kaufering sub camp


Camp forced laborers inside barracks soon after
                  the liberation of Kaufering IV, part of a network of
                  Dachau subcamps. Landsberg-Kaufering, Germany, 1945.                                                                                       
Camp forced laborers inside barracks soon after
                  the liberation of Kaufering IV, part of a network of
                  Dachau subcamps. Landsberg-Kaufering, Germany, 1945.
Inside OT-built Earth Huts - at Kaufering sub camp



Camp forced laborers inside barracks soon after
                  the liberation of Kaufering IV, part of a network of
                  Dachau subcamps. Landsberg-Kaufering, Germany, 1945.

The most important person in charge from the SS at the Mühldorf camp was SS-Sturmbannführer Walter Adolf Langleist, former commander of the guard team at Lublin-Majdanek concentration camp and from September to November 1944 commander of the Kauflinger complex. Every single one of the four Mühldorfer camps had a camp leader, partly they wee older SS members, but partly enlisted men from the Wehrmacht which had been transferred  to the SS. The number of SS guards in itself were not large in comparison to the number of prisoners on this project . On the main construction site  were usually not more than 20 SS-men, who blocked off the area, while Kapos, German foremen and OT-members oversaw the work of the prisoners. In camp M I, about 120 SS people were stationed, about 105 were active in the forest camp.

Langleist was on May 28, 1946, hanged in Landsberg prison for war crimes. 'he threw a prisoner into a pit, where he died and had also beaten another prisoner with a piece of wood until he was dead'.sic]

From July 24, 1944, 8,300 prisoners, including about 7,500 males and about 500 females, were imprisoned in the camps around Mühldorf. While the camp M I was built at Mettenheim by July, 1944, it was was first mentioned in reports during August 1944. Mittergars, whose existence is recorded from October 1944 to the end of April 1945, had around 300 prisoners, who all worked for the OT construction management. As to  Thalham, according to the  ITS documents (falsely called Thalheim), documentary wise, it is mentioned at the end of January 1945 till April 1945. Other records indicate the activity of  prisoners construction work for the OT Mühldirf.  From the statement of an SS Rottenführer shows that at least 42 prisoners, but perhaps as many as  100 to 200 people were locked up there. Female prisoners were only found in the camps M I and Waldlager V, VI. The misunderstandings between male and female prisoners reflects, on the one hand, the labor needs of the organization Todt - construction work - remains scarce and, on the other hand, the generally poorer survival conditions for women during the Auschwitz selection to be sent to a construction site of these proportions. In the summer of 1944 the first transport with 1,000 Hungarian Jewish prisoners from Auschwitz arrived and  taken into  the half-finished camp M I. The camp Mettenheim (M I) was first mentioned on 28 July 1944. Soon the number of people was increased to 2,000 men. Sinceprisoners were registered in the four Mühldorfer camps, as well as 60 men in the  Zangberg monastery. The number of male prisoners of the sub-camps M Enter Picture September 25, 1944, a women's camp with 500 female prisoners existed there. An average of 2,000 men and 250 women were imprisoned at the  Waldlager. On April 3, 1945, 4,233 male and 295 female KZ- ühldorf, three weeks later, shows how strongly the movement within the prisoners' society was until the end of the war. Now it amounted to 4.929.
 prisoners were registered in the four Mühldorfer camps, as well as 60 men in the  Zangberg monastery. The number of male prisoners of the sub-camps M I

Datei:Transportliste KZ Mühldorf.JPG

Document of 25 October 1944 on a prisoner transport of 555 so-called " Mussulmans "  (unable to work)from the camp M 1 to Auschwitz


The work of the prisoners consisted primarily of building works. They had to unload the cement, which has been delivered by trucks or in railway wagons, to store them in ware houses near the construction site and later to carry the 50 kilogram sacks to the concrete mixers, where the cement was tipped into the machines. Other work involved was the railway track construction on site inside the tunneling and supportive work such as the production of prefabricated concrete slabs, for Ways & Freytag a civil contractor in the village of  Ampfing. Kicks, beatings, and ear slapping (Ohrfeigen) by members of the organization Todt and civil companies were on the daily agenda

Living conditions in the Mühldorfer sub-camps can be described as catastrophic without exaggeration. The interior facilities of the huts was limited to floor boards with straw coverings and a stove. In the winter, firewood or heating material was missing, rain and snow were penetrating the roofs of the earth-huts  The food supply by the organization Todt was completely inadequate. In addition, the camp commandant Langleist ordered that the sick prisoners were to withdraw from  the OT pledge to feed them, and instead merely provide them food according to the KZ-G
The work of the prisoners consisted primarily of building works. They had to unload the cement, which has been delivered by trucks or in railway wagons, to store them in ware houses near the construction site and later to carry the 50 kilogram sacks to the concrete mixers, where the cement was tipped into the machines. Other work involved was the railway track construction on site inside the tunneling and supportive work such as the production of prefabricated concrete slabs, for Ways & Freytag a civil contractor in the village of  Ampfing. Kicks, beatings, and ear slapping (Ohrfeigen) by members of the organization Todt and civil companies were on the daily agenda

Living conditions in the Mühldorfer sub-camps can be described as catastrophic without exaggeration. The interior facilities of the huts was limited to floor boards with straw coverings and a stove. In the winter, firewood or heating material was missing, rain and snow were penetrating the roofs of the earth-huts  The food supply by the organization Todt was completely inadequate. In addition, the camp commandant Langleist ordered that the sick prisoners were to withdraw from  the OT pledge to feed them, and instead merely provide them food according to the KZ-G
The work of the prisoners consisted primarily of building works. They had to unload the cement, which has been delivered by trucks or in railway wagons, to store them in ware houses near the construction site and later to carry the 50 kilogram sacks to the concrete mixers, where the cement was tipped into the machines. Other work involved was the railway track construction on site inside the tunneling and supportive work such as the production of prefabricated concrete slabs, for Ways & Freytag a civil contractor in the village of  Ampfing. Kicks, beatings, and ear slapping (Ohrfeigen) by members of the organization Todt and civil companies were on the daily agenda

Living conditions in the Mühldorfer sub-camps can be described as catastrophic without exaggeration. The interior facilities of the huts was limited to floor boards with straw coverings and a stove. In the winter, firewood or heating material was missing, rain and snow were penetrating the roofs of the earth-huts  The food supply by the organization Todt was completely inadequate. In addition, the camp commandant Langleist ordered that the sick prisoners were to withdraw from  the OT pledge to feed them, and instead merely provide them food according to the KZ-GGuidance rates for the ailing.
                       Ausschnitt aus der Totenliste die im Mühldorf-Prozess als Beweismaterial verwendet wurde 
Extract of the Müldorf Death List,  used as evidennce during the triakls.

On the construction sites there were no washing facilities or toilets for the KZ-prisoners. Only when a typhus epidemic arose, the OT construction supervisor ordered the construction of latrines on the buildinb site 'Weingut I'. There wwas no running water in at least two of the four Mühldorfer KZ-sub-camps. The water which was brought into the camps in barrels could only be used for cooking. Due to the lack of washing facilities many prisoners were affected by vermin, (mainly lice) while spotted fever and typhus spread rapidly as a consequence. A quarantine of the forest camp was rescinded by an SS doctor from Dachau, so that the work on the bunker construction could be continued. A German survivor described an auxiliary site in Ampfing, where the company Wayes & Freytag manufactured concrete slabs: "As a medic on this site, I have ro state,  that a number of youthful prisoners, who were 14 to 18-year-olds Hungarian Jews while at work on the construction site have died. As far as the entire population of Ampfing can confirm, we returned to the camp every day in the winter months, with several dead and often with completely exhausted prisoners who were unable to go alone'. The company had made the conditions even more difficult by extending the working day by an hour.

The medical care, for the Mühldorfer camps was in the hands of the Organization Todt. First in the autumn of 1944 was Dr. Erika Flocken, an OT-physician. In Mühldorf, she carried out selections with prisoners. On 25 September 1944, 277 male Jewish prisoners and three Jewesses  went to Auschwitz on 'Invalid transport' (meaning sick and unable to work), on 25 October, a month later, 554 male prisoners and one woman also went to Auschwitz. There they were murdered.

The OT had thus become a helper to the SS, and contributed to the murder of the people who had been to Germany because of their race and used as low cost disposal labour on this  gigantic construction projects of the OT. Like the Kaufinger camp, the Mühldorfer subsidiary  represent a new type of camp, in which the SS - apart from providing  of guard personnel - had fallen aside from any other  responsibility. The organization Todt undertook the projects and determined work-timing (Arbeitstempo), construction of different types of camps, nutrition and medical care, as well as selections of those no longer able-bodied prisoners for disposal.

Towards the end of the war, the head of RSHA Kaltenbrunner, under the code name 'Aktion Wolkenbrand', had a plan for the murder of the Jewish prisoners in Kaufering and Mühldorf. As this proved to be impracticable, the prisoners were evacuated from the Mühldorfer camp. One of the evacuation transports by train led to Poing in the Ebersberg district near Munich. On April 28th, 1945, the train stopped at Poing station to wait for an additional locomotive. The prisoners thought the war was over and left the wagons, this was not stopped by SS guards. When the prisoners had moved about 300 meters away from the train, the guard detachments began to open fire over their heads. In the case of this erroneous early dismissal of the prisoners or by an American fighter plane which attacked and strafed the train until there were no movements of running people, with some 200 prisoners were said to have been injured and killed. In Seehaupt, Tutzing and Feldafing on Lake Starnberg the last Mühldorfer prisoners, what was left of them,  were finally liberated at the end of April 1945 and early May.

   WWII ALLIED AIR ATTACKS VERSUS RAILROAD ... - YouTube                                    

Camp forced laborers inside barracks soon after
                  the liberation of Kaufering IV, part of a network of
                  Dachau subcamps. Landsberg-Kaufering, Germany, 1945.

There are 2,016 deaths recorded in three Death Registers, (Totenbücher) which refers only to camps M I and the forest camp. A mass grave, opened by American soldiers, contained the remains of 2,249 men, another grave at Mittergars contained 42 corpses. 835 people were murdered in Auschwitz or died on the way there. An American investigative commission calculated that about 47 per cent of the prisoners of the Mühldorfer camps (3,934 people) died while it was confirmed that 3,556  survived, another  810 missing prisoners (10 per cent) their fate could no longer be ascertained

The contacts with the population were extremely limited. Anyone who was able to speak German and who knew Germans as part of the assistance during the harvest-season (Ernte-Einsatz) or clearing  work after bomb attacks , was able to find help, but often also indifference and rejection. It is documented that the camp leader of forest camps V, VI, Hauptmann Ostermann, had a woman arrested by the gendarme from  Ampfing, because she had distributed fruit to a column of Jewish prisoners despite the ban.


KZ Cemetery at Mühldorf

In June 1945, the mass graves were opened in the vicinity of Mühldorf, exhumed and buried, the local authorities had to provide coffins and grounds for burial. The local population was forced by the American occupation forces to participate in a total of three mass ceremonies. In 1946, another mass grave was discovered  in the Kaiburger Forest. When the American military government (OMGB) wanted to seize holy ground at  Veitskirchen cemetary for the funeral at St. Neumarkt, a vociferous  protest by the ordinariat of Munich and Freising, was raised, as the dead did not adhere  the Catholic faith furthermore  the confiscation could be expected to result in financial losses. [The plot in God's acreage is not your own and is paid for by remaining relatives on a lease for fifty years and has to be maintained to certain standards or leveled to take another deceased,sic]



The American Mühldorf trial had special rules, if not peculiar  in that it brought members of SS, OT and the construction company Polensky & Zöllmer to the 'Bench of the Accused' (Anklagebank). Only  part of the death sentences against SS members were finally carried out.  Other death sentences against the OT doctor Dr Erike Flocken were commuted  to imprisonment. The architect and head of OT Einsatzgruppe VI, Professor Hermann Giesler, was originally sentenced to 20 years' imprisonment, but released during the 1950s. He had defended himself by pointing out to Hitler that such a monstrous construction  undertaking  could not be carried out with Jewish merchants and lawyers. In another US military court case, the rapport leader of the camp M I, SS Oberscharführer Georg Schallermair, was sentenced to death and hanged in  Landsberg am Lech in 1951. In 958 the last members of the SS who were involved with Mühldorf and OT-employees were set free.

German investigations by the Prosecutor's Office, Traunstein, Munich I, and Munich II as well as Frankfurt against camp leaders, functionaries, OT employees and thos of the construction companies, as well as the police, did not lead to any process.
While hardly any  traces can be found of the camps, the remnants of the concrete arch of the Rüdtungs project in Mühldorf are listed as historical monuments. The building history of the bunkers and the forest camp was made highlighted  by students of the Fachschule Munich in a new dimension and developed proposals for the preservation of the place and the design of a memorial. Local initiatives and the Bayrische Gedenkstätten Foundation are striving to create a memorial site.

Author German Text: Edith Raim

Der Ort des Terrors, Pages 389-
Vol 2 C.H.Beck, München 2005
Translated from German by:
Herbert Stolpmann von Waldeck

                                                                                                     APPENDIX,  Source: Wikipedia

After the war the US Army's Dachau Military Tribunal prosecuted perpetrators of war crimes in connection with the Weingut I project and the associated concentration and labor camps in the Mühldorf Trial (de), which was one of the Dachau Trials.
Among the accused were members of Polensky & Zöllner's administration, including Karl Bachmann, Director of the Munich branch of P & Z; Karl Gickeleiter, who oversaw construction at the main site; and Otto Sperling, construction foreman. The sentencing was performed on 13 May 1947. The charges against Karl Bachmann were dropped, as his involvement in the maltreatment of the prisoners could not be proven. Gickeleiter was sentenced to a 20-year prison term, which would be reduced to 10 years in 1951 before he was released early on 19 July 1952. The death sentence against Sperling was shortly thereafter shortened to life imprisonment and later reduced even further before he was finally released on 20 July 1957.

1980s to today

The ruins of the bunker complex can still be seen in the woods near Mettenheim, although much material from the site has been scavenged in the intervening years by local companies for other building projects. The grounds entered the public eye again in the 1980s, when rumors began to circulate that chemical agents of the Wehrmacht had been stored in the tunnels of the complex after the war. This was not confirmed by the authorities until 1987; the chemicals, including CLARK 2, were subsequently removed.
In 1992, the Bundesvermögensverwaltung (Federal Property Administration, an agency that has since been superseded by the Bundesanstalt für Immobilienaufgaben) proposed to demolish the bunker. Although the communities of Mettenheim and Ampfing endorsed the demolition, many others opposed the proposal, and it was rejected by the government of Upper Bavaria.
In the meantime the bunker grounds had been added to the Bavarian list of monuments as a memorial to the victims of Nazi atrocities. Today the Mühldorf District Catholic Education Center (Katholische Kreisbildungswerk Mühldorf) administers occasional tours of the bunker grounds and the former concentration camp.


  The last remaining arch of the Weingut I is one of seven that were completed out of a planned twelve. Here it is seen from the east, looking out over the overgrown remains of several other arches